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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well documented peer-reviewed publication.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Reduction of aquatic toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by biodegradation
Author:
Kimerle, R.A. and Swisher, R.D.
Year:
1977
Bibliographic source:
Water Research 11:31-37

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EPA-660/3-75-009 1975. Method for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians.with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute toxicity tests were conducted on high molecular weight LAS, individual pure homologues, non-linear LAS components (dialkyl tetralin or indane sulfonates (DTIS), and model biodegradation intermediates (sulfophenyl undecane, SØU) in order to determine whether biodegradation decreases toxicity. In 250 mL beakers with 200 mL of well water of approximately 250 mg/L hardness, ten Daphnia, less than 18 hours old, were placed in each of the three beakers. No food was added for the duration of the test.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
1) High molecular weight LAS: Average chain length = 13.3; C11 1%, C12 8%, C13 52%, C14 39%
2) Individual LAS homologues of C10, C11, C12, C13, and C14
3) Nonlinear LAS components (DTIS)
4) Model biodegradation intermediates

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
In 250 mL beakers with 200 mL of well water of approximately 250 mg/L hardness, ten Daphnia, less than 18 hours old, were placed in each of the three replicate beakers per concentration. Five concentrations were tested.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Crustacea

Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
open system

Test conditions

Hardness:
250 mg/L
Test temperature:
not reported
pH:
not reported
Dissolved oxygen:
not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
not required

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Daphnia magna

Average chain length

24 hour

48 hour

High molecular weight LAS

13.3

2.6 ± 0.1

2.3 ± 0.1

Individual homologues LAS

C10

10

53.1 ± 0.4

12.3 ± 2.6

C11

11

15.8 ± 3.0

5.7 ± 0.6

C12

12

10.7 ± 1.6

3.5 ± 1.0

C13

13

2.7 ± 0.4

2.0 ± 0.3

C14

14

1.2 ± 0.2

0.7 ± 0.2

Nonlinear LAS components (DTIS)

C10

10

106.0 ± 27.0

98.0 ± 21.3

C12

12

55.1 ± 9.1

34.1 ± 5.1

C14

14

12.4 ± 1.4

10.0 ± 1.0

Model biodegradation intermediates

C4 (SØ Butyrate)

4

~12,000

~6,000

C5 (SØ Valerate)

5

~12,000

~5,000

C11 (SØU)

11

355 ± 150*

208 ± 85*

*Subsequent repurification of this sample yielded a product with the same isomeric composition but with LC50 values over 1000 mg/L for daphnids (Swisher et al., 1976).

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Partial biodegradation of LAS is shown to significantly reduce the specific toxicity of the remaining LAS to Daphnia magna.
Executive summary:

The toxicity of high molecular weight LAS, individual LAS homologues, and nonlinear LAS components (DTIS) was measured in a series of aquatic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna. Results show that biodegradation of LAS influences the toxicity, with the remaining LAS becoming less toxic. The 48 -hour LC50 of high molecular weight LAS to Daphnia magna is 2.4 mg/L.