- Sostituzione con sostanze chimiche più sicure
- Come posso farlo?
- Valuta, confronta e seleziona
Come posso farlo?
La sostituzione delle sostanze non significa solo sostituire una sostanza chimica con un'altra. Ognuno deve portare il suo contributo e non esiste una soluzione unica valida per tutti. I metodi che funzionano per un'azienda potrebbero non essere adatti al vostro prodotto o processo. Potreste dover sperimentare diverse soluzioni alternative prima di trovare quella che meglio si adatta alle vostre esigenze. Nell'ambito della valutazione è necessario considerare il pericolo e l'esposizione alla sostanza chimica, i diversi processi tecnici e le progettazioni dei prodotti, nonché le prestazioni tecniche e gli aspetti economici. Inoltre, è importante prestare attenzione a ripercussioni più ampie quali l'impiego di risorse ed energie, la produzione di rifiuti, il riciclaggio o l'impatto sociale.
Once you have a shortlist of alternatives compiled, continue by comparing the options and decide which one would be the most promising for your use. You will need to carry out the following assessments:
- Hazard and risk assessment.
- Performance assessment.
- Economic viability assessment.
- Assessment of other impacts.
When comparing, you should also consider wider effects such as energy and resource use, waste, recycling or social impact.
Keep in mind that a substitution project is best approached in a stepwise and iterative process. You need to prioritise which elements you will assess first and in which level of detail – deciding this upfront when setting the scope for the substitution project.
After a first high-level analysis, come back to the criteria that appear to be key for the decision-making and carry out a more thorough analysis.
For chemical alternatives, make sure you evaluate their risks (hazard and exposure). Check whether ECHA or the EU Member States have them on a list for closer examination – they may be subject to future regulatory measures and you would not want to substitute to a substance that may soon become flagged as of concern. Use different toxicology databases and exposure models to make sure you get the full picture.
In addition to assessing the hazards and risks associated with the use of the alternative substances, it is also important that you assess performance and economic viability. You may want to make use of experimental design methods, which allow you to study several variables simultaneously. Finally, taking a lifecycle perspective, you might need to consider potential trade-offs between the different alternatives options (e.g. hazard vs greenhouse gas emissions).
- GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals: A comparative hazard assessment tool developed by Clean Production Action. It helps evaluate alternatives to chemicals of concern based on 18 hazard endpoints.
- The Quick Chemical Assessment Tool (QCAT): A simplified version of the GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals hazard assessment methodology, to allow SMEs to perform a quick alternatives assessment for chemicals of concern. QCAT also provides detailed information on where to find data and how to interpret the data needed to complete a hazard assessment using the tool.
- GHS Column Model: On the basis of just a small amount of information on the products in question, substitute substances can be assessed with the aid of this table.
- Pollution Prevention Options Analysis System (P2OASys): The tool was designed by the Toxic Use Reduction Institute of Massachusetts (TURI). It aims to help companies conduct a comparative analysis of the hazard profile of alternatives. It can be used to analyse technological processes, individual chemicals or chemical mixtures. The tool requires certain expertise which may render it unsuitable for SMEs.
- Guide on sustainable chemicals – German Environment Agency: A decision tool for substance manufacturers, formulators and end users of chemicals.
- Sustainability method selection tool: Developed by RIVM, this tool helps you find the best method for answering your sustainability questions.
- PROBAS database: Database includes values for energy and water consumption per type of substance/product.
- Material Input per Service Unit (MIPS) calculation: Database includes values for energy and water consumption per type of substance/product.
- Best available techniques Reference document (BREFs): BREFs provide reference information for regulators to use when determining permit conditions