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Administrative data

Description of key information

No chronic repeated dose toxicity study with dichromium trioxide is available. However, based on the information available from two chronic repeated dose oral toxicity studies conducted with chromium picolinate monohydrate using male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice, it was concluded using a read-across concept that dichromium trioxide does not present a health hazard to either sex. This finding is supported by a sub-chronic oral repeated dose toxicity study with dichromium trioxide. No adverse effects could be observed in none of these studies after the administration of chromium picolinate monohydrate and dichromium trioxide, respectively. The approach for read-across is described in detail in the document attached in IUCLID section 13.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2002-07-29 to 2004-08-02
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
Deviations from OECD guideline 452 (2009): detailed clinical observations, opthalmological examinations, clinical biochemistry determinations, urinalysis determinations, organ weight determinations were missing; measure of blood clotting time/potential was missing; histopathological examinations of aorta, cervix, coagulating gland, lacrimal gland, peripheral nerve, spinal cord and vagina were missing; individual data missing; historical control data was missing; justification of species selection was missing
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Chromium picolinate monohydrate was administered ad libitum to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice in feed at concentrations of 0, 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: approx. 0, 250, 1200 and 6565 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 0, 240, 1200 and 6100 mg/kg bw/day) for up to 105 weeks. The following parameters were investigated/recorded: clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, compound intake, gross pathology, and histopathology.
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: at room temperature (~25 °C), protected from light, in sealed plastic buckets.

Stability studies of lot OGJ01 of the bulk chemical were performed using ICP-AES and HPLC-UV with detection at 265 nm. These studies indicated that chromium picolinate monohydrate was stable as a bulk chemical for at least 2 weeks when stored in sealed amber glass containers at temperatures up to 60 °C. To ensure stability, the bulk chemical was stored at room temperature (~25° C), protected from light, in sealed plastic buckets. Periodic reanalyses of the bulk chemical were performed during the 2-year study using HPLC-UV, and no degradation of the bulk chemical was detected.
Species:
mouse
Strain:
B6C3F1
Details on species / strain selection:
not specified
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Taconic Farms, Inc. (Germantown, NY)
- Age at study initiation: approx. 5 to 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation (study day 1; mean):
0 ppm group: 20.3 g (males); 16.6 g (females)
2000 ppm group: 20.5 g (males); 16.7 g (females)
10000 ppm group: 20.4 g (males); 16.6 g (females)
50000 ppm group: 20.5 g (males); 16.5 g (females)
- Housing: 1 male or 5 females per polycarbonate cage (Lab Products, Inc., Maywood, NJ; changed weekly (males) or twice weekly (females)); bedding: irradiated, heat-treated hardwood bedding chips (P.J. Murphy Forest Products, Inc., Montville, NJ; changed weekly (males) or twice weekly (females)); Rack filters: Reemay® spun-bonded polyester (Andico, Birmingham, AL; changed once every 2 weeks); Racks: stainless steel (Lab Products, Maywood, NJ; changed once every 2 weeks)
- Diet (ad libitum): irradiated NTP-2000 open formula meal diet (Zeigler Brothers, Inc.,Gardners, PA)
- Water (ad libitum): tap water
- Acclimation period: 12 days

Five male and five female mice were randomly selected for parasite evaluation and gross observation of disease.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 20.6 to 23.9 °C
- Relative humidity: 50 % ± 15 %
- Air changes: 10/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Details on route of administration:
Dietary exposure was chosen because humans ingest chromium picolinate in supplements.
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on oral exposure:
DIET PREPARATION
A premix of feed and chromium picolinate monohydrate was prepared, then layered into the remaining feed and blended in a Patterson-Kelly twin-shell blender for 30 minutes using an intensifier bar (procedure until June 16, 2003; later dose formulations were mixed for only 15 minutes with the intensifier bar).
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): approx. monthly
- Storage temperature of food: stored in sealed double-thick plastic bags, protected from light at 5 °C.
- Storage time: 42 days
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
ANALYSIS OF DOSE FORMULATIONS.
Periodic analyses of the dose formulations of chromium picolinate monohydrate were conducted by the study laboratory using HPLC-UV. During the 2-year studies, the dose formulations were analyzed approximately every 12 weeks. Of the dose formulations analyzed, all 99 were within 10% of the target concentrations;

In addition, samples of dosed feed taken from the animal rooms were analysed periodically during the study. Nine animal room samples of 15 were within 10% of the target concentrations (six animal room samples were between -11 and - 27 %). Low results in the mouse samples were attributed to contamination by urine, faeces, and bedding during the study period when animals were small enough to get into the feeders.

NOTE: homogeneity and stability were only measured for the lot no. OGJ01, which was mixed with another lot in order to provide a combined lot for the 2 year study.

Homogeneity studies of 82 and 50000 ppm dose formulations of lot OGJ01 and stability studies of the 82 ppm dose formulation of lot OGJ01 were performed using ICP-AES. Additional homogeneity studies of 80 and 50,000 ppm dose formulations of this lot were performed using HPLC-UV. Homogeneity was confirmed, and stability was confirmed for at least 42 days for dose formulations stored in double-thick sealed plastic bags, protected from light at room temperature and for at least 8 days under simulated animal room conditions; to ensure stability, storage at 5° C was recommended.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
105 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
ad libitum
Dose / conc.:
0 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males and females: 0 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
2 000 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males: approx. 250 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 240 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
10 000 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males: approx. 1200 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 1200 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
50 000 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males: approx. 6565 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 6100 mg/kg bw/day
No. of animals per sex per dose:
50 males / 50 females
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: the dose selection for the 2 year repeated dose oral toxicity study with chromium picolinate monohydrate was based on a 3-month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted with male and female B6C3F1 mice. Chromium picolinate monohydrate was administered ad libitum at dose levels of 0, 80, 240, 2000, 10000 or 50000 ppm in feed during an exposuer period of 14 weeks. The following parameters were measured/recorded: clinical signs, mortality, body weight, feed consumption, gross pathology, organ weights, histopathology, sperm motility and vaginal cytology.

Results:
Because chromium picolinate monohydrate produced no biologically significant changes in any of the parameters examined in male or female mice, exposure concentrations of 2000, 10000, and 50000 ppm were selected for the 2-year study in mice.
Positive control:
not applicable
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
NOTE: the parameter haematology was not measured during the 2-year repeated dose oral toxicity study. Method and results were taken from a 3-month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted prior to the 2-year study.

CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily (clinical findings were recorded monthly)
- Cage side observations checked: mortality and clinical findings

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Not specified

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: initially, weekly for the first 13 weeks, monthly therefater, and at the end of the study

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/animal/day: Yes
Feed consumption was measured initially, weekly for the first 13 weeks of the study and approximately monthly thereafter.
- Compound intake calculated: Yes

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): Not specified
OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Not specified

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at the end of study
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes, carbon dioxide
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, reticulocyte, platelet counts, nucleated erythrocytes, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and leukocyte count and differentials (segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, activated lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils)

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Not specified
URINALYSIS: Not specified
NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Not specified
IMMUNOLOGY: Not specified
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes, all animals
At necropsy, all organs and tissues were examined for grossly visible lesions.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes, all animals
All major tissues were fixed and preserved, processed and trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. For all paired organs (e.g., adrenal gland, kidney, ovary), samples from each organ were examined. The following tissues were examined microscopically: gross lesions and tissue masses, adrenal gland, bone with marrow, brain, clitoral gland, esophagus, eyes, gallbladder, harderian gland, heart, large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), kidney, liver, lung, lymph nodes (mandibular and mesenteric), mammary gland, nose, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, preputial gland, prostate gland, salivary gland, skin, spleen, stomach (forestomach and glandular), testis with epididymis and seminal vesicle, thymus, thyroid gland, trachea, urinary bladder, and uterus.
Statistics:
Survival analyses: Kaplan-Meier surivival curves, means, life table trend test, & life table pairwise comparisons. P values were two-sided.
Neoplasm & nonneoplastic lesions: Poly-k test, continuity-corrected Poly-3 test. P values were one-sided.
Body weight: parametric multiple comparison procedures of Dunnett (1955) & Williams (1971, 1972).
Jonckheere’s test was used to assess the significance of the dose-related trends & to determine whether a trend-sensitive test (Williams’ or Shirley’s test) was more appropriate for pairwise comparisons than a test that does not assume a monotonic dose-related trend (Dunnett’s or Dunn’s test)*.
Extreme values identified by the outlier test of Dixon and Massey (1957).
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not specified
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Neuropathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not specified
Details on results:
NOTE: the parameter haematology was not measured during the 2-year repeated dose oral toxicity study. Method and results were taken from a 3-month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted prior to the 2-year study.

CLINICAL SIGNS
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: no clinical findings were attributed to chromium picolinate monohydrate exposure.

MORTALITY
Males:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: survival of exposed groups of males was similar to that of the control groups (Percent probability of survival at end of study: control group: 92 %; 2000 ppm group: 86 %; 10000 ppm group: 76 %; 50000 ppm group: 90 %).
Females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: survival of exposed groups of females was similar to that of the control groups (Percent probability of survival at end of study: control group: 90 %; 2000 ppm group: 90 %; 10000 ppm group: 88 %; 50000 ppm group: 78 %).

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT CHANGES
Males:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: mean body weights of exposed groups of males were generally similar to those of the controls throughout the study.
Females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: mean body weights of exposed groups of females were generally decreased (-1 % to -9 %) during the middle of the study but recovered to control values by the end of the study.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
Males and females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: feed consumption by exposed groups of males and females was similar to that by the controls throughout the study. Dietary concentrations of 2000, 10000, and 50000 ppm resulted in average daily doses of approximately 250, 1200, and 6565 mg chromium picolinate
monohydrate/kg body weight to males (equivalent to 29.8, 143.1, and 783.0 mg Cr/kg/day) and 240, 1200, and 6100 mg/kg to females (equivalent to 28.6, 143.1, and 727.5 mg Cr/kg/day).

HAEMATOLOGICAL FINDINGS
Males and females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: there were no hematological effects in mice administered chromium picolinate monohydrate.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: NEOPLASTIC
1) Liver
Males:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: in males, the incidences of hepatoblastoma occurred with a positive trend (P ≤ 0.05) (0 ppm, 0/50; 2000 ppm, 1/50; 10000 ppm, 0/50; 50000 ppm, 3/50). Hepatoblastoma is considered a variant of hepatocellular carcinoma. The incidences of hepatocellular adenoma (21/50, 22/50, 21/50, 22/50), hepatocellular carcinoma (15/50, 18/50, 20/50, 16/50), and hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, or hepatoblastoma (combined) (32/50, 32/50, 33/50, 33/50) were similar between control and exposed males. Because of the lack of an increase in the incidences of all these neoplasms combined and the low incidences of hepatoblastoma in exposed animals, the incidences of hepatoblastoma were not considered to be related to chromium picolinate monohydrate exposure.

Females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: there were no treatment-related effects in females.

2) Lungs
Males:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: in males, the incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinoma occurred with a positive trend (P ≤ 0.05) (3/50, 2/50, 5/50, 8/50). The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma (13/50, 10/50, 7/50, 8/50) and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) (16/50, 12/50, 12/50, 12/50) were decreased in exposed males. Because of the decreases in alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined), the increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinoma were not considered related to chromium picolinate monohydrate exposure.

Females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: there were no treatment-related effects in females.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
50 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
other: actually ingested: males: approx. 6565 mg/kg bw/day; females:approx. 6100 mg/kg bw/day
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
ca. 783 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
element
Remarks:
Chromium
Sex:
male
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as Cr3+
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
ca. 727.5 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
element
Remarks:
Chromium
Sex:
female
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as Cr3+
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
Continuous exposure to chromium picolinate monohydrate in feed (2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm; actually ingested: males: approx. 250, 1200 and 6565 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 240, 1200 and 6100 mg/kg bw/day) of male and female B6C3F1 mice for a 2-year period caused no treatment-related effects on clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption and histopathology (neoplastic/non-neoplastic).

Furthermore, no treatment-related effects on haematology were expected based on findings reported for a 3 month repeated dose oral toxicity during which the same concentrations in feed were administered to male and female B6C3F1 mice. The 3 month study was conducted prior to the current study.

Based on the findings from this study and the 3-month study, the NOEL (No-Observed-Effect-Level) of chromium picolinate monohydrate in male and female B6C3F1 mice is considered to be 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: approx. 6565 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to approx. 783.0 mg Cr/kg bw/day); females: approx. 6100 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to approx. 727.5 mg Cr/kg bw/day)) due to the absence of any relevant toxicological effects.
Endpoint:
chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2002-08-12 to 2004-08-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
Deviations from OECD guideline 452 (2009): detailed clinical observations, opthalmological examinations, urinalysis determinations and organ weight determinations were missing; measure of blood clotting time/potential was missing; incomplete clinical chemistry (sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, and total cholesterol were missing); histopathological examinations of aorta, cervix, coagulating gland, lacrimal gland, peripheral nerve, spinal cord and vagina were missing; individual data missing; historical control data was missing; justification of species selection wasa missing
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Chromium picolinate monohydrate was administered ad libitum to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats in feed at concentrations of 0, 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: approx. 0, 90, 460 and 2400 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 0, 100, 510 and 2630 mg/kg bw/day) for up to 105 weeks. The following parameters were investigated/recorded: clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, compound intake, gross pathology, and histopathology.
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: at room temperature (~25 °C), protected from light, in sealed plastic buckets.

Stability studies of lot OGJ01 of the bulk chemical were performed using ICP-AES and HPLC-UV with detection at 265 nm. These studies indicated that chromium picolinate monohydrate was stable as a bulk chemical for at least 2 weeks when stored in sealed amber glass containers at temperatures up to 60 °C. To ensure stability, the bulk chemical was stored at room temperature (~25° C), protected from light, in sealed plastic buckets. Periodic reanalyses of the bulk chemical were performed during the 2-year study using HPLC-UV, and no degradation of the bulk chemical was detected.
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: F344/N
Details on species / strain selection:
not specified
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Taconic Farms, Inc. (Germantown, NY)
- Age at study initiation: approx. 5 to 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation (study day 1; mean):
0 ppm group: 114 g (males); 95 g (females)
2000 ppm group: 114 g (males); 95 g (females)
10000 ppm group: 113 g (males); 95 g (females)
50000 ppm group: 113 g (males); 96 g (females)
- Housing: 3 males or 5 females per polycarbonate cage (Lab Products, Inc., Maywood, NJ; changed twice weekly); bedding: irradiated, heat-treated hardwood bedding chips (P.J. Murphy Forest Products, Inc., Montville, NJ; changed twice weekly); Rack filters: Reemay® spun-bonded polyester (Andico, Birmingham, AL; changed once every 2 weeks); Racks: stainless steel (Lab Products, Maywood, NJ; changed once every 2 weeks)
- Diet (ad libitum): irradiated NTP-2000 open formula meal diet (Zeigler Brothers, Inc.,Gardners, PA)
- Water (ad libitum): tap water
- Acclimation period: 12 days

Five male and five female rats were randomly selected for parasite evaluation and gross observation of disease.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 20.6 to 23.9 °C
- Relative humidity: 50 % ± 15 %
- Air changes: 10/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Details on route of administration:
Dietary exposure was chosen because humans ingest chromium picolinate in supplements.
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on oral exposure:
DIET PREPARATION
A premix of feed and chromium picolinate monohydrate was prepared, then layered into the remaining feed and blended in a Patterson-Kelly twin-shell blender for 30 minutes using an intensifier bar (procedure until June 16, 2003; later dose formulations were mixed for only 15 minutes with the intensifier bar).
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): approx. monthly
- Storage temperature of food: stored in sealed double-thick plastic bags, protected from light at 5 °C.
- Storage time: 42 days

Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Periodic analyses of the dose formulations of chromium picolinate monohydrate were conducted by the study laboratory using HPLC-UV. During the 2-year studies, the dose formulations were analyzed approximately every 12 weeks. Of the dose formulations analyzed, all 167 were within 10% of the target concentrations.

In addition, samples of dosed feed taken from the animal rooms were analysed periodically during the study. All 12 animal room samples were within 10% of the target concentrations.

NOTE: homogeneity and stability were only measured for the lot no. OGJ01, which was mixed with another lot in order to provide a combined lot for the 2 year study.

Homogeneity studies of 82 and 50000 ppm dose formulations of lot OGJ01 and stability studies of the 82 ppm dose formulation of lot OGJ01 were performed using ICP-AES. Additional homogeneity studies of 80 and 50,000 ppm dose formulations of this lot were performed using HPLC-UV. Homogeneity was confirmed, and stability was confirmed for at least 42 days for dose formulations stored in double-thick sealed plastic bags, protected from light at room temperature and for at least 8 days under simulated animal room conditions; to ensure stability, storage at 5° C was recommended.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
105 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
ad libitum
Dose / conc.:
0 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males and females: 0 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
2 000 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males: approx. 90 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 100 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
10 000 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males: approx. 460 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 510 mg/kg bw/day
Dose / conc.:
50 000 ppm
Remarks:
actually ingested: males: approx. 2400 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 2630 mg/kg bw/day
No. of animals per sex per dose:
50 males / 50 females
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: the dose selection for the 2 year repeated dose oral toxicity study with chromium picolinate monohydrate was based on a 3-month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted with male and female F344/N rats. Chromium picolinate monohydrate was administered ad libitum at dose levels of 0, 80, 240, 2000, 10000 or 50000 ppm in feed during an exposuer period of 14 weeks. The following parameters were measured/recorded: clinical signs, mortality, body weight, feed consumption, gross pathology, organ weights, haematology, clinical chemistry, histopathology, sperm motility and vaginal cytology.

Results:
Because chromium picolinate monohydrate produced no biologically significant changes in any of the parameters examined in male or female rats, exposure concentrations of 2000, 10000, and 50000 ppm were selected for the 2-year study in rats.
Positive control:
not applicable
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
NOTE: the parameters haematology and clinical chemistry were not measured during the 2-year repeated dose oral toxicity study. Method and results were taken from a 3-month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted prior to the 2-year study.

CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily (clinical findings were recorded monthly)
- Cage side observations checked: mortality and clinical findings

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Not specified

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: initially, weekly for the first 13 weeks, monthly thereafter, and at the end of the study

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/animal/day: Yes
Feed consumption was measured initially, weekly for the first 13 weeks of the study and approximately monthly thereafter.
- Compound intake calculated: Yes

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): Not specified
OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Not specified

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes (method and results taken from a 3 month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted prior to the current study)
- Time schedule for collection of blood:
clinical pathology study (exposure: 3 weeks): days 3 and 21
core study (exposure: 14 weeks): at the end of study
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes, carbon dioxide
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, reticulocyte, platelet counts, nucleated erythrocytes, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and leukocyte count and differentials (segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, activated lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils)

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes (method and results taken from a 3 month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted prior to the current study)
- Time schedule for collection of blood:
clinical pathology study (exposure: 3 weeks): days 3 and 21
core study (exposure: 14 weeks): at the end of study
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and bile acids

URINALYSIS: Not specified
NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Not specified
IMMUNOLOGY: Not specified
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes, all animals
At necropsy, all organs and tissues were examined for grossly visible lesions.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes, all animals
All major tissues were fixed and preserved, processed and trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. For all paired organs (e.g., adrenal gland, kidney, ovary), samples from each organ were examined. The following tissues were examined microscopically: gross lesions and tissue masses, adrenal gland, bone with marrow, brain, clitoral gland, esophagus, eyes, harderian gland, heart, large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), kidney, liver, lung, lymph nodes (mandibular and mesenteric), mammary gland, nose, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, preputial gland, prostate gland, salivary gland, skin, spleen, stomach (forestomach and glandular), testis with epididymis and seminal vesicle, thymus, thyroid gland, trachea, urinary bladder, and uterus.
Statistics:
Survival analyses: Kaplan-Meier surivival curves, means, life table trend test, & life table pairwise comparisons. P values were two-sided.
Neoplasm & nonneoplastic lesions: Poly-k test, continuity-corrected Poly-3 test. P values were one-sided.
Body weight: parametric multiple comparison procedures of Dunnett (1955) & Williams (1971, 1972).
Jonckheere’s test was used to assess the significance of the dose-related trends & to determine whether a trend-sensitive test (Williams’ or Shirley’s test) was more appropriate for pairwise comparisons than a test that does not assume a monotonic dose-related trend (Dunnett’s or Dunn’s test)*.
Extreme values identified by the outlier test of Dixon and Massey (1957).
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Neuropathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not specified
Details on results:
NOTE: the parameters haematology and clinical chemistry were not measured during the 2-year repeated dose oral toxicity study. Method and results were taken from a 3-month repeated dose oral toxicity study conducted prior to the 2-year study.

CLINICAL SIGNS
Males and females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: No clinical findings were attributed to chromium picolinate monohydrate exposure.

MORTALITY
Males:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: although there was a significant trend for decreases in survival in male rats, the decreases were not significant at any exposure concentration and were not considered related to chromium picolinate monohydrate exposure (Percent probability of survival at end of study: control group: 74 %; 2000 ppm group: 72 %; 10000 ppm group: 70 %; 50000 ppm group: 56 %)..
Females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: survival of exposed groups of females was similar to that of the control groups (Percent probability of survival at end of study: control group: 72 %; 2000 ppm group: 70 %; 10000 ppm group: 72 %; 50000 ppm group: 80 %)..

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT CHANGES
Males and females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: mean body weights of exposed groups of males and females were similar to those of the controls throughout the study.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
Males:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: feed consumption by exposed groups of males was generally similar to that of the controls throughout the study. Dietary concentrations of 2000, 10000, and 50000 ppm resulted in average daily doses of approx. 90, 460, and 2400 mg chromium picolinate monohydrate/kg body weight to males (equivalent to 10.7, 54.9, and 286.2 mg Cr/kg/day).
Females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: feed consumption by exposed groups of females was generally similar to that of the controls throughout the study. Dietary concentrations of 2000, 10000, and 50000 ppm resulted in average daily doses of approx. 100, 510, and 2630 mg chromium picolinate monohydrate/kg body weight to females (equivalent to 11.9, 60.8, and 313.7 mg Cr/kg/day).

HAEMATOLOGICAL FINDINGS
Males and females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: all changes were within physiological normal levels, none demonstrated an exposure relationship, and none were considered biologically important or toxicologically relevant.

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY FINDINGS
Males and females:
- 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm groups: all changes were within physiological normal levels, none demonstrated an exposure relationship, and none were considered biologically important or toxicologically relevant.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Males:
- 10000 ppm group: there were no differences in the incidences of preputial gland hyperplasia between exposed and control groups of rats.
Preputial gland hyperplasia was focal, characterized either by an increase in stratified squamous epithelium of the ducts or by increased numbers of sebaceous cells and possibly basal cells.
Females:
- 2000 ppm group: there were no differences in the incidences of clitoral gland hyperplasia between exposed and control groups of rats.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: NEOPLASTIC
Males:
- 10000 ppm group: the incidence of preputial gland adenoma was significantly increased compared to that in the control group and exceeded the historical control ranges for feed studies and for all routes combined. There was no incidence of preputial gland carcinoma.
Preputial gland adenomas were well-circumscribed masses that grew by expansion with compression of the surrounding parenchyma. The neoplastic glands retained some resemblance of acinar structure, although there was some fusion of the acini to form solid clusters of cells (Copeland-Haines and Eustis, 1990)*.
Females:
- 2000 ppm group: the incidence of clitoral gland adenoma was significantly decreased. There was no incidence of clitoral gland carcinoma.

Proliferative lesions of the preputial and clitoral gland comprise a morphological continuum, and separation of these into categories of hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma is based largely on cytological features and degree of altered growth pattern. Lesions classified as hyperplasia are considered to be preneoplastic (Copeland-Haines and Eustis, 1990)*.

*Reference:
- Copeland-Haines, D., and Eustis, S.L. (1990). Specialized sebaceous glands. In Pathology of the Fischer Rat. Reference and Atlas (G.A. Boorman, S.L.
Eustis, M.R. Elwell, C.A. Montgomery, Jr., and W.F. MacKenzie, Eds.), pp. 279–293. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
50 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
other: actually ingested: males: approx. 2400 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 2630 mg/kg bw/day
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
ca. 286.2 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
element
Remarks:
Chromium
Sex:
male
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as Cr3+
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
313.7 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
element
Remarks:
chromium
Sex:
female
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as Cr3+
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
Continuous exposure to chromium picolinate monohydrate in feed (2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm; actually ingested: males: approx. 90, 460 and 2400 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 100, 510 and 2630 mg/kg bw/day) of male and female F344/N rats for a 2-year period caused no treatment-related effects on clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption and histopathology (neoplastic/non-neoplastic).

Furthermore, no treatment-related effects on haematology and clinical chemistry were expected based on findings reported for a 3 month repeated dose oral toxicity during which the same concentrations in feed were administered to male and female F344/N rats. The 3 month study was conducted prior to the current study.

Based on the findings from this study and the 3-month study, the NOEL (No-Observed-Effect-Level) of chromium picolinate monohydrate in male and female F344/N rats is considered to be 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: approx. 2400 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to approx. 286.2 mg Cr/kg bw/day); females: approx. 2630 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to approx. 313.7 mg Cr/kg bw/day)) due to the absence of any relevant toxicological effects.
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Study duration:
chronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
key studies available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
The study is generally well documented and meets generally accepted scientific standards. A number of methodological or reporting deficiencies when comparing the publications with the relevant OECD TG 413 (1981): the guideline foresees that if recovery from test item-related effects is investigated, this may be done in a separate group of animals (10 animals/sex) given the highest dose and observing these animals during a post-treatment period of normally 28 days. In this study five animals of the regular high dose group were kept for a post-exposure group lasting 13 weeks; exposure parameters were not recorded( oxygen content, air flow, temperature, humidity); uncertainty, if equilibration of the chamber concentration was checked; clinical observations during exposure were not recorded; food consumption measurements were missing; haematological, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis parameters were not defined (only statement that these investigations were carried out); histopathological examination was not defined, but it was stated by the author that tissues harvested for this type of study were examined; historical and individual data were missing; exposure apparatus was not described in detail; unclear if actual concentration was measured in the animal's breathing zone
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Version / remarks:
1981-05-12
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
please refer to the remarks field of the field "Rationale reliability incl. deficienceis " above
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
not specified in the publication
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source of test material: British Chrome Chemicals (Orlay Nook, Eaglescliffe, Cleveland, U.K.)

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: test article was stored in separate, unused 1-m³ chambers that were continuously purged with a low flow of dry compressed air.
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: CDF (Fischer 344)/Crl BR VAF/Plus
Details on species / strain selection:
not specified
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories (Raleigh, NC)
- Age at study initiation: 7 weeks of age
- Housing: housed in groups for three days and then individually housed in stainless steel, suspended wire-mesh cages
- Diet (ad libitum): commercial laboratory feed (Purina Certified Rodent Chow No. 5002)
- Water (ad libitum): tap water


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 21 ± 2 °C
- Relative humidity: 43 ± 11%
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
inhalation: dust
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
air
Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD):
>= 1.8 - <= 1.9 µm
Remarks on MMAD:
GSD (range): 1.78 - 1.93
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: rats were exposed in stainless steel and acrylic nose-only inhalation chambers operated with at least 12 chamber air changes per hour.

- System of generating particulates/aerosols: generation of chromic oxide particles was accomplished with a modified low-output dust generator, using spinning glass beads over a packed cake of test material.

- Method of particle size determination: particle-size measurements were made from each exposure level using a cascade impactor once per day for the first two weeks and weekly thereafter.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: chamber samples were determined once per hour by standard gravimetric methods, with periodic analysis for Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Please refer to the field "Details on inhalation exposure" above.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Main study: 13 consecutive weeks
Bronchoalveolar lavage parameters: 5 consecutive days
Frequency of treatment:
Main study: 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 65 exposure days
Dose / conc.:
4.4 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Remarks:
SD: 0.23
Dose / conc.:
15 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Remarks:
SD: 1.2
Dose / conc.:
44 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Remarks:
SD: 3.7
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Main study: 15 animals/sex/dose
Bronchoalveolar lavage evaluation: 5 animals/sex/dose
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: the desired exposure levels were selected to be multiples of the threshold limit value (TLV) for trivalent chromium and set at chromium equivalents of 3, 10, and 30 mg/m³.
- Post-exposure recovery period (main study): 5 males and 5 females from each group were maintained for an additional 13-week recovery period during which time they received no additional exposures.
Positive control:
not specified
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily prior to and following each exposure
- Cage side observations checked: clinical signs

- Time schedule: twice daily during the recovery period and on weekends
- Cage side observations checked: morbidity and mortality

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Not specified

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly during the exposure and recovery periods

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Not specified
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: Not specified

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: during the acclimation period and prior to terminal necropsy

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Not specified
- Animals fasted: Yes, water available
- How many animals: 10 per sex per group, designated for necropsy at the end of exposures
At necropsy, bone marrow smears were prepared and differential cell counts were evaluated.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Animals fasted: Yes, water available
- How many animals: 10 per sex per group, designated for necropsy at the end of exposures

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Yes, overnight
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: 10 per sex per group, designated for necropsy at the end of exposures
Urinalysis determinations were performed by gross observation, microscopy, and automated clinical analyzer.
Following urinalysis testing, aliquots of the remaining urine from 5 animals per sex from the control group, and the high-exposure level groups for both test articles were submitted for Beta2-microglobulin analysis.

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Not specified
IMMUNOLOGY: Not specified
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes

Animals found dead or euthanized by design at study termination were necropsied. At necropsy the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, brain, adrenal glands, thyroid/parathyroid glands, testes, and ovaries were weighed. Tissues typically harvested for subchronic studies were also removed and preserved. Microscopic evaluation was conducted on all hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissues from the control and high-exposure level groups. The kidneys, liver, nasal tissue, trachea, lungs, larynx, mediastinal and mandibular lymph nodes, and gross lesions from all animals in the low- and mid-exposure level groups were also examined.
Other examinations:
BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE EVALUATION:
Rats were anesthetized and the lungs, heart, trachea, larynx, and tongue were removed en-block. Following tracheal cannulation, the airways were washed with warmed, physiological saline and the resulting BALF was pooled. Nucleated cell counts were performed using a Neubauer hemocytometer, and cell differential counts were performed on Wright-Giemsa-stained smears. Chemical analyses performed spectrophotometrically included for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, beta-glucuronidase, and glutathione reductase.
Statistics:
One-way analysis of variance on body weights, clinical pathology laboratory tests, BALF data and organ weights. If the result was significant, Bartlett's test for homogeneity of variance was performed. If Bartlett's test was non-significant, Dunnett's t-test was used for pairwise comparisons. If Barlett's test was significant, the Welch t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparisons. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, followed where appropriate by Mann-Whitney test was used for those parameters where parametric analysis was inappropriate. The level for statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Neuropathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
no effects observed
Details on results:
MORTALITY
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: no compound-related mortalities occurred during the conduct of this study. Some animals died on exposure day 1 as a direct result of the restraint tubes, and they were replaced.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT CHANGES:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: male and female mean body weights during exposures to chromic oxide were not statistically different from the control group's mean body weights in any week. Mean body weights of males exposed to the high concentration of chromic oxide were slightly lower than controls during the recovery period but weight gains for these animals were similar to controls.

OPHTHALMOLOGIC FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: no exposure-related effects were noted in the ophthalmologic evaluations.

HAEMATOLOGICAL FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: after 13 weeks of exposure, none of the exposure groups, for either sex, exhibited a statistically significant difference from the control group for any hematological parameters.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: after 13 weeks of exposure, none of the exposure groups, for either sex, exhibited a statistically significant difference from the control group for any serum biochemical parameters.

URINALYSIS FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: after 13 weeks of exposure, none of the exposure groups, for either sex, exhibited a statistically significant difference from the control group for any urinalysis parameters. Beta- microglobulins were not detected in urine samples from any group.

ORGAN WEIGHT FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: Slight, yet statistically significant increases in mean absolute and relative lung/trachea weights occurred in high-exposure-level group males. Macroscopic and histologic changes were present to explain these organ weight changes. Lung weights were not affected in females. Other statistically significant increases were observed in the mean absolute and relative thyroid/parathyroid weights in the mid-exposure-group females and in the mean relative thyroid/parathyroid/body weight ratios in the high-exposure-group females. These organ weight changes were very small. At the recovery sacrifice, organ weights of all the exposure groups were comparable to the control group.
Please also refer to the field "Any other information on results incl. tables" below.

GROSS PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: exposure-related macroscopic findings at the terminal and recovery sacrifices were observed in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes of most animals in this study. Green lung discoloration was observed in animals exposed to chromic oxide at all exposure levels.
The degree of discoloration increased with exposure level and was present both at the terminal and recovery sacrifices. Similar discoloration was observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of animals exposed to chromic oxide (terminal and recovery sacrifices).
Mediastinal lymph-node enlargement was observed at the recovery sacrifice in animals exposed to chromic oxide (high exposure only).
Additional macroscopic observations were few in number and considered incidental.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: NON-NEOPLASTIC
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³:
1) Terminal sacrifice: randomly distributed foci or aggregates of pigmented macrophages filled with dense black pigment were observed within alveolar spaces adjacent to the junctions of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and subjacent to the pleura in males and females from all chromic-oxide treatment
groups. Similar black pigment was also observed at the tracheal bifurcation, in the peribronchial lymphoid tissue, and within the mediastinal lymph node. The pigment stained black with hematoxylin and eosin stain and was presumed to represent the test article. The presence of the pigment corresponded to the green discoloration seen macroscopically. Trace to mild chronic interstitial inflammation of the lung, characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory cells, was observed in alveolar septa surrounding aggregates of pigmented macrophages in some mid-exposure and high-exposure level males and females. Chronic interstitial inflammation was accompanied by septal cell hyperplasia (Type II pneumocytes) in some mid- and high-exposure level males. The microscopic changes were
generally associated with the pigment and corresponded to the increased lung weight observed for the males in the high-exposure-level group. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the node was also present in all exposure groups. No test article-related lesions were seen in the nasal cavities of animals exposed to chromic oxide at any exposure level.

2) Recovery sacrifice: in the lung, trace to mild pigmented macrophages and black pigment in the peribronchial lymphoid tissue persisted in all treatment groups, males and females, at approximately equal incidence and severity, as seen in the terminal-sacrifice animals. Trace to mild septal cell hyperplasia and trace to mild chronic interstitial inflammation persisted in males of all treatment groups and females in the mid- and high-exposure-level groups. These lesions were the same or slightly increased in severity as compared to the terminal-sacrifice groups. Trace to mild black pigment also persisted in mediastinal lymph nodes in all exposure groups, with an apparent increase in incidence in some males in the two lowest-exposure groups as compared to the terminal-sacrifice group,
suggesting pulmonary clearance via the lymphatic system. Most of the pathologic changes observed at the recovery sacrifice were of minimal severity.

BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE EVALUATION:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: None of the exposure groups demonstrated a statistically significant difference from the control group for any BAL parameter. A yellow intracytoplasmic, crystalline material was present within the mononuclear cells from all exposure groups. The relative amount of material and percentage of affected cells increased progressively with increasing exposure concentration. Small amounts of crystals were present in >90% of the cells observed from the low-exposure-group animals and moderate to large amounts of crystalline material were noted in >99% of the cells observed in all high-exposure-group animals. The amount of crystals in the mid-exposure group was intermediate to the other 2 groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect level:
15 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
organ weights and organ / body weight ratios
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Table 1. Selected organ weight changes at terminal sacrifice of rats exposed to chromic oxide

   Control  4.4 mg/m3  15 mg/m3             44 mg/m3 
 Males Lung/trachea           
wt (g)  0.99 + 0.07  0.98 + 0.055  1.0 + 0.077  1.11 + 0.050**
wt/bw (% x 10)   4.42 + 0.187  4.52 + 0.273  4.49 + 0.396  4.98 + 0.228**
 Females Lung/trachea           
 wt (g)  0.81 + 0.081  0.81 + 0.080 0.85 + 0.084  0.88 + 0.068 
 wt/bw (% x 10)  5.65 + 0.418 5.78 + 0.577  5.77 + 0.629  6.40 + 0.618 
 Thyroid/parathyroid           
 wt (mg)  12 + 1.9 13 + 1.3  15 + 1.5**   14 + 2.3
 wt/bw (% x 103)  8.26 + 1.493  8.89 + 0.880  10.10 + 1.147*  10.04 + 1.346*
Note: Organ weight changes given as mean + SD; bw = body weight. Organ weights of exposed animals were not statistically different from control animals at recovery sacrifice. * p </= 0.05; ** p </= 0.01            
Conclusions:
Derelanko et al. (1999) investigated the repeated dose inhalation toxicitiy of chromium oxide in groups of 15 male and 15 female CDF (Fischer 344/Crl BR VAF/Plus rats, which received the substance via nose-only inhalation at concentrations of 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³ air (actual concentration). The animals received the substance 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 13 consecutive days. An control group was run concurrently. Five animals/sex of the treatment groups were used as recovery group at the end of the treatment period for a duration of 13 weeks. In addition, separate groups of 5 animals/sex/dose were investigated for bronchoalveolar lavage parameters. No test item-related effects were observed for clinical signs, mortality, body weights,ophthalmological examination, haematology, clinical chemistry and urinalysis. In addition, no test item-related effects were found during the bronchoalveolar lavage evaluation.

A NOAEC of 15 mg Cr2O3/m³ is derived on the basis of a dose-dependent mild inflammatory response characterised by an increase of phagocytotic cells and a subsequent increase of lung weights being significant in the male animals of the high dose group. None of the BALF parameters (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, beta-glucuronidase, and glutathione reductase) was affected after 90-day inhalation exposure, indicating a lack of tissue damage. No other adverse effects were observed and the inflammatory response was completely reversible within the recovery period.
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
The study is generally well documented and meets generally accepted scientific standards. A number of methodological or reporting deficiencies when comparing the publications with the relevant OECD TG 413 (1981): the guideline foresees that if recovery from test item-related effects is investigated, this may be done in a separate group of animals (10 animals/sex) given the highest dose and observing these animals during a post-treatment period of normally 28 days. In this study five animals of the regular high dose group were kept for a post-exposure group lasting 13 weeks; exposure parameters were not recorded( oxygen content, air flow, temperature, humidity); uncertainty, if equilibration of the chamber concentration was checked; clinical observations during exposure were not recorded; food consumption measurements were missing; haematological, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis parameters were not defined (only statement that these investigations were carried out); histopathological examination was not defined, but it was stated by the author that tissues harvested for this type of study were examined; historical and individual data were missing; exposure apparatus was not described in detail; unclear if actual concentration was measured in the animal's breathing zone
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Version / remarks:
1981-05-12
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
please refer to the remarks field of the field "Rationale reliability incl. deficienceis " above
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
not specified in the publication
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source of test material: British Chrome Chemicals (Orlay Nook, Eaglescliffe, Cleveland, U.K.)

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: test article was stored in separate, unused 1-m³ chambers that were continuously purged with a low flow of dry compressed air.
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: CDF (Fischer 344)/Crl BR VAF/Plus
Details on species / strain selection:
not specified
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories (Raleigh, NC)
- Age at study initiation: 7 weeks of age
- Housing: housed in groups for three days and then individually housed in stainless steel, suspended wire-mesh cages
- Diet (ad libitum): commercial laboratory feed (Purina Certified Rodent Chow No. 5002)
- Water (ad libitum): tap water


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 21 ± 2 °C
- Relative humidity: 43 ± 11%
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
inhalation: dust
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
air
Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD):
>= 1.8 - <= 1.9 µm
Remarks on MMAD:
GSD (range): 1.78 - 1.93
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: rats were exposed in stainless steel and acrylic nose-only inhalation chambers operated with at least 12 chamber air changes per hour.

- System of generating particulates/aerosols: generation of chromic oxide particles was accomplished with a modified low-output dust generator, using spinning glass beads over a packed cake of test material.

- Method of particle size determination: particle-size measurements were made from each exposure level using a cascade impactor once per day for the first two weeks and weekly thereafter.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: chamber samples were determined once per hour by standard gravimetric methods, with periodic analysis for Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Please refer to the field "Details on inhalation exposure" above.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Main study: 13 consecutive weeks
Bronchoalveolar lavage parameters: 5 consecutive days
Frequency of treatment:
Main study: 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 65 exposure days
Dose / conc.:
4.4 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Remarks:
SD: 0.23
Dose / conc.:
15 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Remarks:
SD: 1.2
Dose / conc.:
44 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Remarks:
SD: 3.7
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Main study: 15 animals/sex/dose
Bronchoalveolar lavage evaluation: 5 animals/sex/dose
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: the desired exposure levels were selected to be multiples of the threshold limit value (TLV) for trivalent chromium and set at chromium equivalents of 3, 10, and 30 mg/m³.
- Post-exposure recovery period (main study): 5 males and 5 females from each group were maintained for an additional 13-week recovery period during which time they received no additional exposures.
Positive control:
not specified
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily prior to and following each exposure
- Cage side observations checked: clinical signs

- Time schedule: twice daily during the recovery period and on weekends
- Cage side observations checked: morbidity and mortality

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Not specified

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly during the exposure and recovery periods

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Not specified
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: Not specified

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: during the acclimation period and prior to terminal necropsy

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Not specified
- Animals fasted: Yes, water available
- How many animals: 10 per sex per group, designated for necropsy at the end of exposures
At necropsy, bone marrow smears were prepared and differential cell counts were evaluated.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Animals fasted: Yes, water available
- How many animals: 10 per sex per group, designated for necropsy at the end of exposures

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Yes, overnight
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: 10 per sex per group, designated for necropsy at the end of exposures
Urinalysis determinations were performed by gross observation, microscopy, and automated clinical analyzer.
Following urinalysis testing, aliquots of the remaining urine from 5 animals per sex from the control group, and the high-exposure level groups for both test articles were submitted for Beta2-microglobulin analysis.

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Not specified
IMMUNOLOGY: Not specified
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes

Animals found dead or euthanized by design at study termination were necropsied. At necropsy the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, brain, adrenal glands, thyroid/parathyroid glands, testes, and ovaries were weighed. Tissues typically harvested for subchronic studies were also removed and preserved. Microscopic evaluation was conducted on all hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissues from the control and high-exposure level groups. The kidneys, liver, nasal tissue, trachea, lungs, larynx, mediastinal and mandibular lymph nodes, and gross lesions from all animals in the low- and mid-exposure level groups were also examined.
Other examinations:
BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE EVALUATION:
Rats were anesthetized and the lungs, heart, trachea, larynx, and tongue were removed en-block. Following tracheal cannulation, the airways were washed with warmed, physiological saline and the resulting BALF was pooled. Nucleated cell counts were performed using a Neubauer hemocytometer, and cell differential counts were performed on Wright-Giemsa-stained smears. Chemical analyses performed spectrophotometrically included for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, beta-glucuronidase, and glutathione reductase.
Statistics:
One-way analysis of variance on body weights, clinical pathology laboratory tests, BALF data and organ weights. If the result was significant, Bartlett's test for homogeneity of variance was performed. If Bartlett's test was non-significant, Dunnett's t-test was used for pairwise comparisons. If Barlett's test was significant, the Welch t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparisons. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, followed where appropriate by Mann-Whitney test was used for those parameters where parametric analysis was inappropriate. The level for statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Neuropathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
no effects observed
Details on results:
MORTALITY
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: no compound-related mortalities occurred during the conduct of this study. Some animals died on exposure day 1 as a direct result of the restraint tubes, and they were replaced.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT CHANGES:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: male and female mean body weights during exposures to chromic oxide were not statistically different from the control group's mean body weights in any week. Mean body weights of males exposed to the high concentration of chromic oxide were slightly lower than controls during the recovery period but weight gains for these animals were similar to controls.

OPHTHALMOLOGIC FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: no exposure-related effects were noted in the ophthalmologic evaluations.

HAEMATOLOGICAL FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: after 13 weeks of exposure, none of the exposure groups, for either sex, exhibited a statistically significant difference from the control group for any hematological parameters.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: after 13 weeks of exposure, none of the exposure groups, for either sex, exhibited a statistically significant difference from the control group for any serum biochemical parameters.

URINALYSIS FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: after 13 weeks of exposure, none of the exposure groups, for either sex, exhibited a statistically significant difference from the control group for any urinalysis parameters. Beta- microglobulins were not detected in urine samples from any group.

ORGAN WEIGHT FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: Slight, yet statistically significant increases in mean absolute and relative lung/trachea weights occurred in high-exposure-level group males. Macroscopic and histologic changes were present to explain these organ weight changes. Lung weights were not affected in females. Other statistically significant increases were observed in the mean absolute and relative thyroid/parathyroid weights in the mid-exposure-group females and in the mean relative thyroid/parathyroid/body weight ratios in the high-exposure-group females. These organ weight changes were very small. At the recovery sacrifice, organ weights of all the exposure groups were comparable to the control group.
Please also refer to the field "Any other information on results incl. tables" below.

GROSS PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: exposure-related macroscopic findings at the terminal and recovery sacrifices were observed in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes of most animals in this study. Green lung discoloration was observed in animals exposed to chromic oxide at all exposure levels.
The degree of discoloration increased with exposure level and was present both at the terminal and recovery sacrifices. Similar discoloration was observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of animals exposed to chromic oxide (terminal and recovery sacrifices).
Mediastinal lymph-node enlargement was observed at the recovery sacrifice in animals exposed to chromic oxide (high exposure only).
Additional macroscopic observations were few in number and considered incidental.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: NON-NEOPLASTIC
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³:
1) Terminal sacrifice: randomly distributed foci or aggregates of pigmented macrophages filled with dense black pigment were observed within alveolar spaces adjacent to the junctions of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and subjacent to the pleura in males and females from all chromic-oxide treatment
groups. Similar black pigment was also observed at the tracheal bifurcation, in the peribronchial lymphoid tissue, and within the mediastinal lymph node. The pigment stained black with hematoxylin and eosin stain and was presumed to represent the test article. The presence of the pigment corresponded to the green discoloration seen macroscopically. Trace to mild chronic interstitial inflammation of the lung, characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory cells, was observed in alveolar septa surrounding aggregates of pigmented macrophages in some mid-exposure and high-exposure level males and females. Chronic interstitial inflammation was accompanied by septal cell hyperplasia (Type II pneumocytes) in some mid- and high-exposure level males. The microscopic changes were
generally associated with the pigment and corresponded to the increased lung weight observed for the males in the high-exposure-level group. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the node was also present in all exposure groups. No test article-related lesions were seen in the nasal cavities of animals exposed to chromic oxide at any exposure level.

2) Recovery sacrifice: in the lung, trace to mild pigmented macrophages and black pigment in the peribronchial lymphoid tissue persisted in all treatment groups, males and females, at approximately equal incidence and severity, as seen in the terminal-sacrifice animals. Trace to mild septal cell hyperplasia and trace to mild chronic interstitial inflammation persisted in males of all treatment groups and females in the mid- and high-exposure-level groups. These lesions were the same or slightly increased in severity as compared to the terminal-sacrifice groups. Trace to mild black pigment also persisted in mediastinal lymph nodes in all exposure groups, with an apparent increase in incidence in some males in the two lowest-exposure groups as compared to the terminal-sacrifice group,
suggesting pulmonary clearance via the lymphatic system. Most of the pathologic changes observed at the recovery sacrifice were of minimal severity.

BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE EVALUATION:
- 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³: None of the exposure groups demonstrated a statistically significant difference from the control group for any BAL parameter. A yellow intracytoplasmic, crystalline material was present within the mononuclear cells from all exposure groups. The relative amount of material and percentage of affected cells increased progressively with increasing exposure concentration. Small amounts of crystals were present in >90% of the cells observed from the low-exposure-group animals and moderate to large amounts of crystalline material were noted in >99% of the cells observed in all high-exposure-group animals. The amount of crystals in the mid-exposure group was intermediate to the other 2 groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect level:
15 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
organ weights and organ / body weight ratios
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Table 1. Selected organ weight changes at terminal sacrifice of rats exposed to chromic oxide

   Control  4.4 mg/m3  15 mg/m3             44 mg/m3 
 Males Lung/trachea           
wt (g)  0.99 + 0.07  0.98 + 0.055  1.0 + 0.077  1.11 + 0.050**
wt/bw (% x 10)   4.42 + 0.187  4.52 + 0.273  4.49 + 0.396  4.98 + 0.228**
 Females Lung/trachea           
 wt (g)  0.81 + 0.081  0.81 + 0.080 0.85 + 0.084  0.88 + 0.068 
 wt/bw (% x 10)  5.65 + 0.418 5.78 + 0.577  5.77 + 0.629  6.40 + 0.618 
 Thyroid/parathyroid           
 wt (mg)  12 + 1.9 13 + 1.3  15 + 1.5**   14 + 2.3
 wt/bw (% x 103)  8.26 + 1.493  8.89 + 0.880  10.10 + 1.147*  10.04 + 1.346*
Note: Organ weight changes given as mean + SD; bw = body weight. Organ weights of exposed animals were not statistically different from control animals at recovery sacrifice. * p </= 0.05; ** p </= 0.01            
Conclusions:
Derelanko et al. (1999) investigated the repeated dose inhalation toxicitiy of chromium oxide in groups of 15 male and 15 female CDF (Fischer 344/Crl BR VAF/Plus rats, which received the substance via nose-only inhalation at concentrations of 4.4, 15 and 44 mg/m³ air (actual concentration). The animals received the substance 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 13 consecutive days. An control group was run concurrently. Five animals/sex of the treatment groups were used as recovery group at the end of the treatment period for a duration of 13 weeks. In addition, separate groups of 5 animals/sex/dose were investigated for bronchoalveolar lavage parameters. No test item-related effects were observed for clinical signs, mortality, body weights,ophthalmological examination, haematology, clinical chemistry and urinalysis. In addition, no test item-related effects were found during the bronchoalveolar lavage evaluation.

A NOAEC of 15 mg Cr2O3/m³ is derived on the basis of a dose-dependent mild inflammatory response characterised by an increase of phagocytotic cells and a subsequent increase of lung weights being significant in the male animals of the high dose group. None of the BALF parameters (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, beta-glucuronidase, and glutathione reductase) was affected after 90-day inhalation exposure, indicating a lack of tissue damage. No other adverse effects were observed and the inflammatory response was completely reversible within the recovery period.
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Repeated dose oral toxicity

The National Toxicology Program (NTP, 2010) evaluated chromium picolinate monohydrate in a 2-year repeated dose oral toxicity study using rats. The substance was administered ad libitum to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats in feed at concentrations of 0, 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: approx. 0, 90, 460 and 2400 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 0, 100, 510 and 2630 mg/kg bw/day) for up to 105 weeks. According to the authors, chromium picolinate monohydrate did not caused treatment-related effects on clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption and histopathology (neoplastic/non-neoplastic).

Furthermore, no treatment-related effects on haematology and clinical chemistry were expected based on findings reported for a 3 month repeated dose oral toxicity (NTP, 2010; please refer to Section 7.8.1. Toxicity to reproduction: k_NTP_2010_3 months_rats) during which the same concentrations in feed were administered to male and female F344/N rats as in the chronic study. The 3 month study was conducted prior to 2 -year study and was used as a dose range finder for the chronic study.

Based on the findings from the 2 -year and 3-month studies, the NOEL (No-Observed-Effect-Level) of chromium picolinate monohydrate in male and female F344/N rats is considered to be 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: 2400 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to 288 mg Cr/kg bw/day); females: 2630 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to 315.6 mg Cr/kg bw/day)) due to the absence of any relevant toxicological effects.

In addition, the National Toxicology Program (NTP, 2010) evaluated chromium picolinate monohydrate in a 2-year repeated dose oral toxicity study using mice. The substance was administered ad libitum to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice in feed at concentrations of 0, 2000, 10000 and 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: approx. 0, 250, 1200 and 6565 mg/kg bw/day; females: approx. 0, 240, 1200 and 6100 mg/kg bw/day) for up to 105 weeks. According to the authors, chromium picolinate monohydrate did not cause treatment-related effects on clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption and histopathology (neoplastic/non-neoplastic).

Furthermore, no treatment-related effects on haematology were expected based on findings reported for a 3 month repeated dose oral toxicity (NTP, 2010; please refer to Section 7.8.1. Toxicity to reproduction: k_NTP_2010_3 months_mice) during which the same concentrations in feed were administered to male and female B6C3F1 mice as in the chronic study. The 3 month study was conducted prior to 2 -year study and was used as a dose range finder for the chronic study.

Based on the findings from the 2 -year and 3-month studies, the NOEL (No-Observed-Effect-Level) of chromium picolinate monohydrate in male and female B6C3F1 mice is considered to be 50000 ppm (actually ingested: males: approx. 6565 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to approx. 787.8 mg Cr/kg bw/day); females: approx. 6100 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent to approx. 732 mg Cr/kg bw/day)) due to the absence of any relevant toxicological effects.

A 90-day oral toxicity study was performed by Ivankovic & Preussmann (1975) at dietary incorporation levels of 2% and 5%; dose levels are calculated to be equivalent to mean achieved intakes of approximately 700 mg/kg bw/d and 2000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. No clearly treatment-related findings were seen under the conditions of this study. It is therefore concluded that chromium (III) oxide is of very low oral toxicity. Green-coloured faeces noted in the treated groups indicate that the test material was excreted unchanged; findings are consistent with the toxicokinetic data which indicate very limited oral absorption.

 

Repeated dose dermal toxicity

No studies are available for the dermal route of exposure. Although the dermal route is relevant to occupational exposure, the absence of systemic effects following the repeated administration of very high oral dose levels of this substance and the negligible dermal absorption indicate a lack of systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. In addition, guideline complaint studies for skin and eye irritation show that dichromium trioxide is void of any local effect.

 

Repeated dose inhalation toxicity

The effects observed in a guideline-compliant, 3 -month subchronic inhalation study in rats were primarily noted in the respiratory tract. A NOAEC of 15 mg Cr2O3/m³ was established on the basis of a dose-dependent mild inflammatory response characterised by an increase of phagocytotic cells and a subsequent increase of lung weights being significant in the male animals of the high dose group. None of the BALF parameters (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, beta-glucuronidase, and glutathione reductase) was affected after 90-day inhalation exposure, indicating a lack of tissue damage. No other adverse effects were observed and the inflammatory response was completely reversible within the recovery period.

Justification for classification or non-classification

The results of the available repeated dose toxicity studies via oral and inhalation route do not trigger classification for specific target organ toxicity-repeated exposure according to Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008.