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EC number: 202-163-5
CAS number: 92-52-4
Toxicity to fish
Brosier (1975) yielded key information on the acute toxicity of biphenyl
to fish. A 96-h EC50 of 3.0 mg/L was obtained in a flow-through study
with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). A single study is available
for saltwater fish (Dill and Emmittee, 1980), showing a 96 hr. LC50 of
Mayes et al. (1988) was considered the key study for long-term toxicity
of biphenyl to fish. This study reports the results of an early-life
stage test started with newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs (Salmo
gairdneri). After a total of 87 days of exposure a NOEC value of 0.229
mg/L was determined based on length measurements of surviving larvae. No
reliable studies were identified on saltwater species.
Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
For acute toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, the study of Gersich et
al. (1988) was considered the key study, yielding a 48-h LC50 of 0.36
mg/L obtained in a flow-through study with Daphnia magna. The study of
Buhl and Neff (1988) yielded key information for acute toxicity of
biphenyl to marine invertebrates, with a 96-h EC50 > 0.269 obtained in a
flow-through oyster shell deposition test with Eastern oyster
(Crassostrea virginica). However, because this is an unbound effect
concentration, this EC50 cannot be used for PNEC derivation and can
therefore only be used as supporting information.
Gersich et al. (1988) is the key study for long-term toxicity of
biphenyl to aquatic invertebrates, reporting a 21-d NOEC of 0.17 mg/L
for both reproduction and mortality of Daphnia magna. No reliable
studies were identified on long-term toxicity of biphenyl to saltwater
Overall, aquatic invertebrates appear to be the most sensitive group and
therefore the NOEC of 0.17 mg/L will be the driver for derivation of the
PNEC for both the freshwater and the marine aquatic compartment.
Toxicity to aquatic plants (preferably algae)
Because no reliable experimental data were identified for toxicity of
biphenyl to algae, non-testing data (QSAR predictions) as well as
testing data for diphenyl oxide and Therminol VP1 (an eutectic mixture
of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl) were added to the dossier. All available
effect concentrations were more or less in the same range and therefore,
based on a weight-of-evidence approach, the 96-h EC50 and chronic value
of 1.772 and 0.945 mg/L, respectively, predicted by the latest version
of US EPA's ECOSAR (v.1.00, 2009) were considered as the key effect
concentrations to be used for the aquatic hazard assessment. Because no
chronic values are used under REACH, the NOEC was estimated to be 0.66
mg/L. These values indicate that algae are not the most sensitive group
and therefore further testing is not considered necessary.
Toxicity to aquatic microorganisms
No reliable information was identified for
this endpoint. However, based on a series of studies with ciliated
protozoans, which were all assigned a Klimisch 3 score mainly because
exposure concentrations were not verified, a weight-of-evidence approach
resulted in a reasonable worst case LOEC of 5.6 mg/L (Dive et al.,
1980). No NOEC was reported by Dive et al. (1980), however, based on the
information in the publication, it can be assumed that the test
concentration series 1.8 – 3.2 – 5.6 – 10.0 mg/L was used and therefore
the NOEC can be assumed to be 3.2 mg/L. Nonetheless,
the PNECstp is derived from results of the OECD 301C ready
biodegradability test, where toxicity to the inoculum was not observed
at 100 mg/L biphenyl, with is several-fold higher than the water
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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