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EC number: 701-315-2
CAS number: -
Eilebrecht (2016) is a non-GLP rangefinder study with Danio rerio.
A 96-hour semi-static study was conducted with test solution renewal
afrer 48 hours. Analytical verification of both platinum and the organic
ligand showed that none of the organic ligand could be detected (LOQ:
0.0025 mg/L) and very small amounts of platinum were detected in
solution. At the highest test concentration of 10 mg L-1, no mortality
or behavioural abnormalities were observed. As the test item was shown
to be very poorly soluble in the rangefinder, and it was not possible to
get higher amounts of test item into solution following further
solubility trials, and no effects were observed at the highest nominal
concentration tested, a definitive test was not conducted.
range-finder study showed no toxicity at nominal concentrations up to 10
concentration tested). Analytical monitoring of both the organic ligand
and platinum showed very low concentrations of platinum and none of the
organic ligand could be detected in solution. As the test item is very
poorly soluble and it was not possible to get more of the test item into
solution, aquatic toxicity is not expected at the limit of solubility
and this was demonstrated in the range-finding study.
rangefinder study showed no toxicity at nominal concentrations up to 10
mg L-1(highest concentration tested). Analytical monitoring
of both the organic ligand and platinum showed very low concentrations
of platinum and none of the organic ligand could be detected in
solution. As the test item is very poorly soluble and it was not
possible to get more of the test item into solution, aquatic toxicity is
not expected at the limit of solubility and this was demonstrated in the
concentrate was tested in range-finder studies with fish, Daphnia and
algae (Eilebrecht 2016, Simon 2016, Wenzel 2016). The highest nominal
test concentration used in the range-finders was 10 mg L-1.
The highest concentration test solutions were prepared by adding the
test item to test media (20 mg in 2 litres), stirring for one hour and
then passing the resulting ‘solution’ through a 0.2 µm PES filter. The
filtrate was used directly as the highest test concentration (nominally
10 mg L-1), while the lower test concentrations were prepared
by appropriate dilution of the filtrate. This procedure ensured that
only soluble components of the test item were assessed for toxicity. The
resulting test solution at the highest concentration used in the
range-finder is considered to be at the limit of solubility for the
substance. Analytical monitoring of the test solutions was conducted,
with both the organic ligand and platinum measured. In the range-finding
studies, only very low concentrations of platinum were detected and the
organic ligand was present close to or below the LOQ in all samples. No
toxicity was observed for fish, Daphnia or algae.
the substance was shown to be poorly soluble in test media and therefore
only small amounts of platinum could be detected in the range-finder
studies, further solubility trials were conducted in order to determine
if it is possible to increase the concentrations of the test item
components in solution. Although higher solubility was determined for
the test item in a water solubility study, the water solubility result
was based on analysis of platinum only, and similar levels of solubility
were not observed with ecotoxicity test media. 96-hour solubility trials
were conducted using the same media used in the fish andDaphniastudies,
adjusted to pH 6, and with three different separation techniques
trialled (decanting, filtering and centrifugation). An initial
concentration of 4.3 mg L-1Karstedt concentrate was used. The
test solutions were analysed after 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The
organic ligand was present close to or below the LOQ in all samples (LOQ
2.16 µg L-1), suggesting it is highly insoluble and
therefore unlikely to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Platinum was
detected in the solutions but measured concentrations were low, ranging
from 3.90 to 9.43 µg Pt L-1over the course of the test
for filtered and centrifuged solutions. Measured concentrations were
higher for the decanted solutions (45.16 µg Pt L-1at 0
hours to 7.03 µg Pt L-1at 96 h), however it is believed
that this is likely to be due to some of the undissolved test material
being included during the decanting phase.
on the solubility trials, it was not possible to get the organic ligand
into solution and only small amounts of platinum were in solution. The
platinum concentrations in solution are unlikely to lead to aquatic
toxicity. Comparing the measured concentrations of platinum from the
filtered and centrifuged solutions against the acute environmental
reference values (ERV) for other platinum substances (481 µg L-1for
dihydrogen hexahydroxyplatinate, 117 µg L-1for
dihydrogen hexahydroxyplatinate, compound with 2-aminoethanol, 108 µg L-1for
diammonium hexachloroplatinate, 7600 µg L-1for
tetraammineplatinum hydrogencarbonate, 9750 µg L-1for
platinum tetraamine diacetate and 20.5 µg L-1for
hexachloroplatinic acid) shows that measured platinum concentrations
released from Karstedt concentrate are lower than the ERVs and therefore
aquatic toxicity is not expected. The most toxic platinum substance,
hexachloroplatinic acid, is expected to release platinum in the form of
chloroplatinate anions and, although the exact form of platinum released
from Karstedt concentrate is not known, it is not expected to be
chloroplatinate. Any platinum released from Karstedt concentrate is
therefore likely to be in a less toxic form than that released from
hexachloroplatinic acid. However, even comparing the platinum release
from the solubility trial against the acute ERV for hexachloroplatinic
acid, as a worst case approach, aquatic toxicity from Karstedt
concentrate is not expected.
of the organic ligand showed that it was present close to or below the
LOQ in all samples, although the fate of the ligand is not clear. The
ligand may be very poorly soluble and therefore removed during filtering
of the solutions (it appears that solubility of Karstedt concentrate in
test media is lower than solubility of the organic ligand alone), it may
be strongly adsorbing to the test vessels or filters, although several
different methods for preparing the test solutions have been trialled in
order to reduce this possibility, or it may hydrolyse leading to
breakdown products that are not detected in the analysis. If breakdown
products are present these are not considered to contribute to the
toxicity of the test item as the breakdown products would also have been
present in the range-finder tests in which no toxicity was observed.
on the results from solubility trials it is concluded that neither the
organic ligand nor the platinum component of Karstedt concentrate will
enter solution in high enough amounts to lead to aquatic toxicity. This
is supported by the results of the range-finder studies conducted with
three trophic levels at a highest nominal concentration of 10 mg L-1.
As it is not possible to get more of the test item in solution,
conducting definitive ecotoxicity studies is not considered to be
necessary. To conclude on environmental classification, the standard
approach would be to test up to a nominal concentration of 100 mg L-1.
However, for this substance testing at a nominal concentration of 100 mg
considered to be unnecessary, as the limit of solubility appears to have
been reached at the nominal concentration of 10 mg L-1, and
testing at higher concentrations would not lead to additional test item
in solution. As no toxicity was observed at the limit of solubility in
the range-finder studies, neither an acute or chronic environmental
classification is considered to be required for the substance.
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