Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 1954 to 1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The EU RAR summarises the results of a number of fish acute studies which, individually, have limitations regarding study design and reliabilty. However the results of these studies when taken as a whole, provide an adequate assessment of acute toxicity to fish. The data are considered to fulfil the criteria laid down in Annex XI to Regulation 1907/2006: adequate for classification and labelling, adequate coverage of key parameters (lethality), exposure duration comparable or longer that Article 13(3) methods ( 96 hours), adequate documentation provided: EU RAR, of which parts have been copied to this endpoint record. Reliability for endpoint also increased based on test results from several species.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
European Union Risk Assessment Report: chromium trioxide, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, ammonium dichromate and potassium dichromate
Author:
European Chemicals Bureau
Year:
2005
Bibliographic source:
3rd. Priority List; Volume 53

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Guideline:
other: range of studies included
Deviations:
not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Several studies, collectively, provide a weight-of-evidence to address the acute toxicity endpoint. The methods include the appropriate endpoints (lethality and sublethal effects) and duration (equal to 96 hours exposure). Results from more species than recommended have been reported and hence provide an adequate representation of acute toxicity to fish.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
For some fish species, toxicity data are available for more than one of the chromium (VI) compounds included in this assessment. The available information indicates that, when expressed on a total chromium concentration, there are no significant differences between the toxicity of sodium chromate, sodium dichromate and potassium dichromate (allowing for differences in water properties). This is as would be expected if the equilibria between the chromate and dichromate anions are established in the test medium. Little information is available for ammonium dichromate and chromic acid, but it would be expected that their toxicity would be similar to that of the other chromates/dichromates, when expressed on a total chromium concentration basis.
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
See Test material identity above

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Various sampling procedures based on multiple studies

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
various test media prepared based on multiple studies in freshwater and salt water.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Range of species tested
Details on test organisms:
Range of species tested

Study design

Test type:
other: Range of test designs used
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Remarks on exposure duration:
Range used from several studies
Post exposure observation period:
None reported

Test conditions

Hardness:
Range used from several studies
Test temperature:
Range used from several studies
pH:
Range used from several studies
Dissolved oxygen:
Range used from several studies
Salinity:
Range used from several studies
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Range used from several studies
Details on test conditions:
Range used from several studies
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified

Results and discussion

Details on results:
See any other information below.

Any other information on results incl. tables

The results of the acute fish toxicity studies evaluated in the EU RAR are summarised below:

Species

Endpoint

Value (mg/l)

Reference

Freshwater

Brachydanio rerio

96-hour LC50

58.5

Bellavere and Gorbi (1981)

Carrasius auratus

96-hour LC50

37.5

Pickering and Henderson (1966)

Channa punctatus

96-hour LC50

45.2

Saxena and Parashari (1983)

Colisa fasciatus

96-hour LC50

20.8c

Srivastava et al. (1979)

Ictalurus punctatus

24-hour LC50

58

Cairns Jr. et al (1978)

Lebistes reticulatus  

96-hour TLm

30

Pickering and Henderson (1966)

Lepomis macrochirus

96-hour LC50
48-hour TLm

96-hour LC50

110

213a

120b

Trama and Benoit (1960)

Turnbull et al. (1954)

Cairns Jr. and Scheier (1958)

Morone saxitalis

96-hour LC50

28b

Palawski et al. (1985)

Notemigonus crysoleucas

96-hour LC50

55

Hartwell et al. (1989)

Oncorhynchus mykiss

96-hour LC50

63.6

69a

13d

Brown et al. (1985)

Benoit (1976)

Van Der Putte et al (1981b)

Pimephales promelas

96-hour TLm
96-hour LC
50

96-hour TLm

17.6

33.2a

45.6b

Pickering and Henderson (1966)

Benoit (1976)

Pickering and Henderson (1966)

Salvelinus fontinalis  

96-hour LC50

59

Benoit (1976)

Saltwater

Alburnus alburnus*

96-hour LC50

84.8

Lindén et al. (1979)

Chelon labrosus

48-hour LC50

47.2

Taylor et al. (1985)

Citlerichthys stigmaeus

96-hour LC50

30

Mearns et al. (1976)

Cyprinodon variegates

96-hour LC50

25

21.4b

Jop et al. (1987)

Dorn et al. (1987)

Gasterosteus aculcatus*

96-hour LC50

33

35b

Jop et al. (1987)

Limanda limanda

96-hour LC50

47

Taylor et al. (1985)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Based on a review of existing fish data from the EU RAR, an acceptable assessment of acute toxicity was achieved.
Executive summary:

Based on a review of existing fish data from the EU RAR, an acceptable assessment of acute toxicity was achieved.

The acute toxicity of chromium (VI) to fish appears to be dependent on the water hardness and also pH. Higher toxicity has generally been seen in soft water and at more acidic pHs, particularly those <6.5. This dependence appears to follow a similar pattern to the uptake of chromium (VI) by fish (see Section 3.1.1.2.4), where it has been postulated that at lower pHs, the main form of chromium (VI) in solution is the monovalent HCrO4 - ion, which has been postulated as having a higher mobility across cell membranes than the divalent chromium (VI) oxyanions found at higher pH.

For some fish species, toxicity data are available for more than one of the chromium (VI) compounds included in this assessment. The available information indicates that, when expressed on a total chromium concentration, there are no significant differences between the toxicity of sodium chromate, sodium dichromate and potassium dichromate (allowing for differences in water properties). This is as would be expected if the equilibria between the chromate and dichromate anions are established in the test medium. Little information is available for ammonium dichromate and chromic acid, but it would be expected that their toxicity would be similar to that of the other chromates/dichromates, when expressed on a total chromium concentration basis.