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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

The most critical 96-h LC50 is 672 mg/l in the freshwater fish Pimephales promelas. For marine fish the most critical value was the 96-h LC50 574 mg/l in the marine fish Menidia beryllina.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
672 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
574 mg/L

Additional information

There are several guideline studies available, both for freshwater and marine fish. The studies are either semi-static or flow-through and the test concentrations are measured in all studies. The most critical studies for both freshwater and marine species were therefore chosen as key studies. For freshwater fish the most critical effect concentration is a 96-h LC50 value of 672 mg/l in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (Geiger et al., 1988). The most critical effect concentration in marine fish is a 96-h LC50 of 574 mg/l in inland silverside (Menidia beryllina) (BenKinney et al., 1994). These values will be used in the assessment.

A NOEC of 220mg/l and an LC50 of ~1700mg/l was established for a 5 day embryo/sac fry study in zebrafish (Danio rerio) examining developmental and other end points including gene expression (Bonventre et al., 2011, 2012). However, the study greatly exceeds max. test concentration recommended in the OECD 212 test guideline and has limited relevance for the environmental risk assessment.