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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer reviewed journal.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
TLm (median tolerance limit) test was carried out according to the procedure of Japan Industrial Standards (Japanese Industrial Standards Committee, 1971). Ten fish of Himedaka per one trial were kept in 2 liter of deionized water at 25.C and, after 24 or 48 hours, lethal concentration of 50% fish was determined.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Crystal violet
- IUPAC name: N-(4-{bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylene}cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene)-N-methylmethanaminium chloride
- Molecular formula : C25H30N3.Cl
Molecular weight : 407.986 g/mol
- Smiles notation: C(\c1ccc(N(C)C)cc1)(c1ccc(N(C)C)cc1)=C1\C=C\C(=[N+](/C)C)C=C1.[ClH-]
- InChl:1S/C25H30N3.ClH/c1-26(2)22-13-7-19(8-14-22)25(20-9-15-23(16-10-20)27(3)4)21-11-17-24(18-12-21)28(5)6;/h7-18H,1-6H3;1H/q+1;/p-1
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Oryzias latipes
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Japanese Medaka
- Length at study initiation : 2 CM
- Weight at study initiation: 0.2 G

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 10 days in the tap water before experiment.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
the effects were measured at 24hr and 48 hr.
Test temperature:
25 C
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: toxic
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: toxic
Conclusions:
The Lethal concentration to 50% of Oryzias latipes for 24 Hour under static condition is 0.2 mg/L and for 48 hr is 0.1 mg/L. It can be concluded that the [4-[4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzhydrylidene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]dimethylammonium chloride is toxic to the aquatic environment.
Executive summary:

The Lethal concentration to 50% of Oryzias latipes for 24 Hour under static condition is 0.2 mg/L and for 48 hr is 0.1 mg/L. It can be concluded that the [4-[4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzhydrylidene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]dimethylammonium chloride is toxic to the aquatic environment and can be considered as “Aquatic Acute 1” as per CLP regulation.

Description of key information

The experimental data from Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicinee following the standard testing procedures Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine suggests that the 4-{bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylidene}-N,N-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-iminium chloride exhibits acute toxicity to fathead minnows under static unaerated test conditions during a 96-hour exposure. Its 96-hour LC-50  is 0.082 mg/l with 95% confidence limits of 0.065 mg/l and 0.11 mg/l. The slope of the dose response curve is 4.55 with 95% confidence limits of 2.16 and 6.94 is toxic to the aquatic environment.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
0.082 mg/L

Additional information

Following four studies of target substance includes experimental data following standard procedure, data from peer reviewed journal,

predicted data from Authoritative database are summarized below to conclude the toxicity of

N-(4-{bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylene}cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene)-N-methylmethanaminium chloride towards fish:

The experimental data from Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicinee following the standard testing procedures Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine suggests that the 4-{bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylidene}-N,N-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-iminium chloride exhibits acute toxicity to fathead minnows under static unaerated test conditions during a 96-hour exposure. Its 96-hour LC-50  is 0.082 mg/l with 95% confidence limits of 0.065 mg/l and 0.11 mg/l. The slope of the dose response curve is 4.55 with 95% confidence limits of 2.16 and 6.94 is toxic to the aquatic environment.

The above study is supported by the result available from peer reviewed journal The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 1982, indicates that

The Lethal concentration to 50% of Oryzias latipes for 24 Hour under static condition is 0.2 mg/L and for 48 hr is 0.1 mg/L. It can be concluded that the [4-[4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzhydrylidene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]dimethylammonium chloride is toxic to the aquatic environment.

Another supporting study by the predicted data from Danish QSAR database estimates, The lethal concentration (LC50) at 96 hrs for [4-[4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzhydrylidene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]dimethylammonium chloride in Fathead minnow Using three different models i.e, Battery, Leadscope and SciQSAR is estimated to be 0.104 mg/L.

It is further supported by the predicted data by ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module  (v5.0.0.184) the predicted Median Lethal Concentration (LC50, mg/L) for fish species Pimephales promelas of the [4-[4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzhydrylidene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]dimethylammonium chloride found to be 0.13 mg/l on the basis of mortality effects.

Thus based on the effect concentrations which is in the range 0.082 mg/L to 0.2 mg/l give the conclusion that test substance N-(4-{bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylene}cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene)-N-methylmethanaminium chloride (Cas no. 548-62-9) was likely to be toxic to fish at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered to be Aquatic Acute 1as per the CLP classification criteria.