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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (Kmw) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. The hydrocarbons, C10 -C12, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics estimated freshwater fish 28-day NOELR (No Observed Effect Loading Rate) value is mg/l based on growth.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The hydrocarbons, C13-C16, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, estimated freshwater fish 28-day NOELR (No Observed Effect Loading Rate) value is >1000 mg/l based on growth.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. The hydrocarbons, C13-C16, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, estimated freshwater fish 28-day NOELR (No Observed Effect Loading Rate) value is >1000 mg/l based on growth.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (Kmw) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (Kmw) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (Kmw) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (Kmw) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information       

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not applicable, calculated value
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This summary has a reliability of 2 because the results are estimated using a computer model that is appropriate for use with this hydrocarbon substance.
Justification for type of information:
Tha aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Tha aquatic toxicity was estimated by a QSAR, the Petrotox computer model. This model combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitionning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The data were calculated by a computer model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate nor analogue material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test type:
other: QSAR modeled data
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Hardness:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Test temperature:
Not applicable (calculated data)
pH:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Dissolved oxygen:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Salinity:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable (calculated data)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
No details
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not applicable

No other information

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.
Executive summary:

The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

 

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Good experimental study although not GLP. No guideline available. Very long term trophic study (45 weeks exposure + 8 weeks depuration).
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The fish are exposed to the substance through food for 7 to 10 months, then depurated for 2 months. Growth is recorded monthly.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (No analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The substance was incorporated to the diet. The diet consisted of 36% herring fish meal / 33.5% wheat / 22.5% soybean meal / 3% soybean oil / 2% vitamin mix / 1% mineral mix /2% lignosulfite (binder). In the experimental diet, 1% of soybean oil was substituted by the same amount of substance.

The diets were pelleted (dry method) with a Templewood press in two pellet sizes: 2.5 mm (for trout 13-80 g weight) and 5 mm for the bigger sizes. Canthaxanthin (0.02%) was added to the 5 mm pellets.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 8 months
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 13 g


FEEDING DURING TEST
- Food type: artificial; prepared at the laboratory
- Amount: satiation feeding
- Frequency: 4 times a day except the day before weighing
Test type:
other: Trophic exposure; flow-through tanks
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
45 wk
Post exposure observation period:
At the end of the exposure period, the remaining fish were divided into two groups: one group was fed at satiation 4 times a day on control diet, while the second group was maintained on total fast. Weight variations were followed for 8 weeks.
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
17 +/- 1 °C
pH:
no data
Dissolved oxygen:
no data
Salinity:
Not relevant (freshwater study)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentration in food: 10 g/kg
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 7 m * 1.5 m * 0.4 m
- Water flow rate: 350 L/min
- No. of organisms per vessel: 800
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 2.5 g/L


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Tank water: spring water


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Mortality
- Weight : Lots of 100 trout, sampled using a table of random numbers were weighed weekly for the first month, then monthly
- Canthaxanthin determination in muscle, skin and remaing carcass at the pellet size change and at the end of the exposure
- Voluntary feed intake recorded weekly


Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
45 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: effect concentration
Effect conc.:
> 10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
45 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Remarks:
voluntary food intake
Duration:
45 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Reversible: increased growth rate during the depuration phase
Duration:
45 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Canthaxanthin fixation
Duration:
45 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Digestion of dry matter and lipids
Details on results:
- Fish weights, weight gains and feeding parameters: see Table 1
- Other biological observations: Canthaxanthin fixation: see Table 2; Digestion of dry matter and lipids: see Table 3
- Incidents in the course of the test which might have influenced the results: None

Depuration phase (see Table 4):
- General compensatory growth in fed test fish
- Reduced weight loss in starving test fish compared to control
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Student's t-test

Table 1. Effect of 1% incorporation of pristane in the diet on appetite, growth and food utilisation in rainbow trout during the accumulation period.

 

Treatment

Initial mean weight (g)

Final mean weight (g)

Weekly mean body weight increase (g/wk)

Conversion factor (Feed/∆ W)

Feed intake (% BW/day)

Control

13.4

170

6.02

1.61

1.55

Pristane

13.7

137

2.74

2.69

1.40

∆ W: weight increase; BW: body weight

 

Table 2. Effect of 1% incorporation of pristane in the diet on canthaxanthin concentrations in different tissues of rainbow trout.

 

Treatment

Diet (µg/g)

Skin (µg/g FBW)

Muscle (µg/g FBW)

Remaining carcass (µg/g FBW)

Control

178

1.17

11.42

0.24

Pristane

179

1.18

3.64

0.37

FBW: Fresh body weight

 

 

Table 3. Digestion coefficients (%) calculated for dry matter and lipids in trout given diets containing pristane

 

Treatment

Dry matter

Lipids

Control

57.86 ± 0.34

90.47 ± 0.70

Pristane

55.76 ± 0.93*

82.73 ± 1.99*

* significantly different from control (p<0.001)

 

 

Table 4. Weight variation in rainbow trout starved or fed control diet for 8 weeks at the end of the exposure period.

 

Treatment

Fed

Starving

Final weight (g)

% increase*

Weely weight increase* (g/wk)

Conversion factor

Final weight (g)

% decrease*

Weely weight decrease* (g/wk)

Control

236

38.8

8.3

3.07

146

14.1

3

Pristane

255

86.1

14.7

1.76

130

5.1

0.9

* since the end of exposure

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Very long term exposure (45 weeks) to 1% pristane in diet reduces fish appetite, fish growth, lipid digestibility and canthaxanthin fixation in rainbow trout. The effects are reversible.
Executive summary:

Pristane was incorporated into the diet (10 g/kg food) of rainbow trout to assess the effects of long-term exposure to saturated hydrocarbons. Feed intake was recorded daily and weight gain monthly.At the end of the accumulation time (45 weeks), canthaxanthin concentration was determined in the muscle, the skin and the remaining carcass. A general depressive effect of pristane was observed on both appetite and growth. The reduced growth rate could not be fully explained by the decrease in food consumption. Pristane reduced the lipid and dry matter digestibilities as well as canthaxanthin fixation in muscle.

During a 2 month depuration period, half the trout were fed a hydrocarbon-free diet while the other half starved. A general compensatory growth was observed in the fed fish. Correspondingly, for starving trout, the weight decrease was lower for the test group than in control.

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Good experimental study although not GLP. No guideline available. Very long term trophic study (41 weeks exposure + 8 weeks depuration).
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The fish are exposed to the substance through food for 7 to 10 months, then depurated for 2 months. Growth is recorded monthly.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (No analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The substance was incorporated to the diet. The diet consisted of 36% herring fish meal / 33.5% wheat / 22.5% soybean meal / 3% soybean oil / 2% vitamin mix / 1% mineral mix /2% lignosulfite (binder). In the experimental diet, 1% of soybean oil was substituted by the same amount of substance.

The diets were pelleted (dry method) with a Templewood press in two pellet sizes: 2.5 mm (for trout 13-80 g weight) and 5 mm for the bigger sizes. Canthaxanthin (0.02%) was added to the 5 mm pellets.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Strain: no data
- Source: no data
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 8 months
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 13 g
- Method of breeding: no data


FEEDING DURING TEST
- Food type: artificial; prepared at the laboratory
- Amount: satiation feeding
- Frequency: 4 times a day except the day before weighing
Test type:
other: Trophic exposure; flow-through tanks
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
41 wk
Post exposure observation period:
At the end of the exposure period, the remaining fish were divided into two groups: one group was fed at satiation 4 times a day on control diet, while the second group was maintained on total fast. Weight variations were followed for 8 weeks.
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
17 +/- 1 °C
pH:
no data
Dissolved oxygen:
no data
Salinity:
Not relevant (freshwater study)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentration in food: 10 g/kg
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 7 m * 1.5 m * 0.4 m
- Water flow rate: 350 L/min
- No. of organisms per vessel: 800
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 2.5 g/L


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Tank water: spring water


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Mortality
- Weight : Lots of 100 trout, sampled using a table of random numbers were weighed weekly for the first month, then monthly
- Canthaxanthin determination in muscle, skin and remaing carcass at the pellet size change and at the end of the exposure
- Voluntary feed intake recorded weekly


Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
41 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
41 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Remarks:
voluntary food intake
Duration:
41 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Reversible: increased growth rate during the depuration phase
Duration:
41 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Canthaxanthin fixation
Duration:
41 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Digestion of dry matter and lipids
Details on results:
- Fish weights, weight gains and feeding parameters: see Table 1
- Other biological observations: Canthaxanthin fixation: see Table 2; Digestion of dry matter and lipids: see Table 3
- Incidents in the course of the test which might have influenced the results: None

Depuration phase (see Table 4):
- General compensatory growth in fed test fish
- Reduced weight loss in starving test fish compared to control
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Student's t-test

Table 1. Effect of 1% incorporation of dodecylcyclohexane in the diet on appetite, growth and food utilisation in rainbow trout during the accumulation period.

 

Treatment

Initial mean weight (g)

Final mean weight (g)

Duration of accumulation experiment (weeks)

Weekly mean body weight increase (g/wk)

Conversion factor (Feed/∆ W)

Feed intake (% BW/day)

Control

13.4

170

26

6.02

1.61

1.55

Dodecyl-cyclohexane

13.6

169

41

3.79

2.14

1.42

∆ W: weight increase; BW: body weight

 

Table 2. Effect of 1% incorporation of dodecylcyclohexane in the diet on canthaxanthin concentrations in different tissues of rainbow trout.

 

Treatment

Diet (µg/g)

Skin (µg/g FBW)

Muscle (µg/g FBW)

Remaining carcass (µg/g FBW)

Control

178

1.17

11.42

0.24

Dodecyl-cyclohexane

164

1.22

4.66

1.08

FBW: Fresh body weight

 

 

Table 3. Digestion coefficients (%) calculated for dry matter and lipids in trout given diets containing dodecylcyclohexane

 

Treatment

Dry matter

Lipids

Control

57.86 ± 0.34

90.47 ± 0.70

Dodecylcyclohexane

54.68 ± 1.16*

86.97 ± 0.78*

* significantly different from control (p<0.001)

 

 

Table 4. Weight variation in rainbow trout starved or fed control diet for 8 weeks at the end of the exposure period.

 

Treatment

Fed

Starving

Final weight (g)

% increase*

Weely weight increase* (g/wk)

Conversion factor

Final weight (g)

% decrease*

Weely weight decrease* (g/wk)

Control

236

38.8

8.3

3.07

146

14.1

3

Dodecyl-cyclohexane

265

56.8

12

3.09

151

10.7

2.2

* since the end of exposure

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Very long term exposure (41 weeks) to 1% dodecylcyclohexane in diet reduces fish appetite, fish growth, lipid digestibility and canthaxanthin fixation in rainbow trout. The effects are reversible.
Executive summary:

Dodecylcyclohexane was incorporated into the diet (10 g/kg food) of rainbow trout to assess the effects of long-term exposure to saturated hydrocarbons. Feed intake was recorded daily and weight gain monthly.At the end of the accumulation time (41 weeks), canthaxanthin concentration was determined in the muscle, the skin and the remaining carcass. A general depressive effect of dodecylcyclohexane was observed on both appetite and growth. The reduced growth rate could not be fully explained by the decrease in food consumption. Dodecylcyclohexane reduced the lipid and dry matter digestibilities as well as canthaxanthin fixation in muscle.

During a 2 month depuration period, half the trout were fed a hydrocarbon-free diet while the other half starved. A general compensatory growth was observed in the fed fish. Correspondingly, for starving trout, the weight decrease was lower for the test group than in control.

Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Good experimental study although not GLP. No guideline available. Very long term trophic study (31 weeks exposure + 8 weeks depuration).
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The fish are exposed to the substance through food for 7 to 10 months, then depurated for 2 months. Growth is recorded monthly.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Details on sampling:
Not applicable (No analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The substance was incorporated to the diet. The diet consisted of 36% herring fish meal / 33.5% wheat / 22.5% soybean meal / 3% soybean oil / 2% vitamin mix / 1% mineral mix /2% lignosulfite (binder). In the experimental diet, 1% of soybean oil was substituted by the same amount of test substance.

The diets were pelleted (dry method) with a Templewood press in two pellet sizes: 2.5 mm (for trout 13-80 g weight) and 5 mm for the bigger sizes. Canthaxanthin (0.02%) was added to the 5 mm pellets.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 8 months
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 13 g


FEEDING DURING TEST
- Food type: artificial; prepared at the laboratory
- Amount: satiation feeding
- Frequency: 4 times a day except the day before weighing
Test type:
other: Trophic exposure; flow-through tanks
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
31 wk
Post exposure observation period:
At the end of the exposure period, the remaining fish were divided into two groups: one group was fed at satiation 4 times a day on control diet, while the second group was maintained on total fast. Weight variations were followed for 8 weeks.
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
17 +/- 1 °C
pH:
no data
Dissolved oxygen:
no data
Salinity:
Not relevant (Freshwater study)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentration in food: 10 g/kg
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 7 m * 1.5 m * 0.4 m
- Aeration: no data
- Water flow rate: 350 L/min
- No. of organisms per vessel: 800
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 2.5 g/L


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Tank water: spring water


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Mortality
- Weight : Lots of 100 trout, sampled using a table of random numbers were weighed weekly for the first month, then monthly
- Canthaxanthin determination in muscle, skin and remaing carcass at the pellet size change and at the end of the exposure
- Voluntary feed intake recorded weekly


Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
31 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Effect concentration
Effect conc.:
> 10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
31 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Remarks:
voluntary food intake
Duration:
31 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Reversible: increased growth rate during the depuration phase
Duration:
31 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Canthaxanthin fixation
Duration:
31 wk
Dose descriptor:
other: Decrease
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg diet
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Digestion of dry matter and lipids
Details on results:
- Fish weights, weight gains and feeding parameters: see Table 1
- Other biological observations: Canthaxanthin fixation: see Table 2; Digestion of dry matter and lipids: see Table 3
- Incidents in the course of the test which might have influenced the results: None

Depuration phase (see Table 4):
- General compensatory growth in fed test fish
- Reduced weight loss in starving test fish compared to control
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Student's t-test

Table 1. Effect of 1% incorporation of n-alkanes in the diet on appetite, growth and food utilisation in rainbow trout during the accumulation period.

 

Treatment

Initial mean weight (g)

Final mean weight (g)

Duration of accumulation experiment (weeks)

Weekly mean body weight increase (g/wk)

Conversion factor (Feed/∆ W)

Feed intake (% BW/day)

Control

13.4

170

26

6.02

1.61

1.55

n-alkanes

13.3

150

31

4.41

2.06

1.63

∆ W: weight increase; BW: body weight

 

Table 2. Effect of 1% incorporation of n-alkanes in the diet on canthaxanthin concentrations in different tissues of rainbow trout.

 

Treatment

Diet (µg/g)

Skin (µg/g FBW)

Muscle (µg/g FBW)

Remaining carcass (µg/g FBW)

Control

178

1.17

11.42

0.24

n-alkanes

173

1.18

5.54

0.59

FBW: Fresh body weight

 

 

Table 3. Digestion coefficients (%) calculated for dry matter and lipids in trout given diets containing n-alkanes

 

Treatment

Dry matter

Lipids

Control

57.86 ± 0.34

90.47 ± 0.70

n-alkanes

56.04 ± 1.14*

88.26 ± 0.85*

* significantly different from control (p<0.005)

 

 

Table 4. Weight variation in rainbow trout starved or fed control diet for 8 weeks at the end of the exposure period.

 

Treatment

Fed

Starving

Final weight (g)

% increase*

Weely weight increase* (g/wk)

Conversion factor

Final weight (g)

% decrease*

Weely weight decrease* (g/wk)

Control

236

38.8

8.3

3.07

146

14.1

3

n-alkanes

231

54.0

10.1

2.61

129

14.0

2.6

* since the end of exposure

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Very long term exposure (31 weeks) to 1% n-alkanes in diet reduces fish appetite, fish growth, lipid digestibility and canthaxanthin fixation in rainbow trout. The effects are reversible.
Executive summary:

n-alkanes were incorporated into the diet (10 g/kg food) of rainbow trout to assess the effects of long-term exposure to saturated hydrocarbons. Feed intake was recorded daily and weight gain monthly.At the end of the accumulation time (31 weeks), canthaxanthin concentration was determined in the muscle, the skin and the remaining carcass. A general depressive effect of n-alkanes was observed on both appetite and growth. The reduced growth rate could not be fully explained by the decrease in food consumption. n-alkanes reduced the lipid and dry matter digestibilities as well as canthaxanthin fixation in muscle.

During a 2 month depuration period, half the trout were fed a hydrocarbon-free diet while the other half starved. A general compensatory growth was observed in the fed fish. Correspondingly, for starving trout, the weight decrease was lower for the test group than in control.

Description of key information

The aquatic toxicity toward fish under chronic conditions was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.

The hydrocarbons, C13-C16, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, estimated freshwater fish 28-day NOELR (No Observed Effect Loading Rate) value is >1000 mg/L, based on growth.

 

The 28-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C13-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics in Oncorhynchus mykiss is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 28-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C17, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics in Oncorhynchus mykiss is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 28-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics in Oncorhynchus mykiss is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 28-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C20 (even numbered), n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics in Oncorhynchus mykiss is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 28-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics inOncorhynchus mykissis >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 28-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics in Oncorhynchus mykiss is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 28-day NOELR for Icosane in Oncorhynchus mykiss is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 28-day NOELR for Isohexadecane in Oncorhynchus mykiss is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28-day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

Very long term exposure (31 weeks) to 1% n-alkanes in diet reduces fish appetite, fish growth, lipid digestibility and canthaxanthin fixation in rainbow trout. The effects are reversible.

Very long term exposure (45 weeks) to 1% pristane in diet reduces fish appetite, fish growth, lipid digestibility and canthaxanthin fixation in rainbow trout. The effects are reversible.

Very long term exposure (41 weeks) to 1% dodecylcyclohexane in diet reduces fish appetite, fish growth, lipid digestibility and canthaxanthin fixation in rainbow trout. The effects are reversible.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The aquatic toxicity toward fish under chronic conditions was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.