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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

No information on toxicity to birds is available, considering all relevant information available (i.e. the substance is not toxic to mammals (not classified for toxicity)) toxicity to birds is not expected

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Studies available for terrestrial and aquatic organisms all demonstrate low toxicity for members of the category SCAE C2-C8. Bioaccumulation of the substances in organisms birds feed on is not expected, due to rapid metabolism. In the case of ingestion, SCAE C2-C8 category members are predicted to undergo metabolism. Esters of primary alcohols, containing from 1 to 18 carbon atoms, with fatty acids, containing from 2 to 18 carbon atoms, are hydrolysed by pancreatic lipases. Measured rates of enzyme catalysed hydrolysis varied between 2 and 5 µeq/min/mg enzyme for the different chain lengths (Mattson and Volpenhein, 1972; and references therein). The resulting free fatty acids and alcohols are absorbed from the intestine into the blood stream. Fatty acids are either metabolised via theβ-oxidation pathway in order to generate energy for the cell or reconstituted into glyceride esters and stored in the fat depots in the body. The alcohols are metabolised primarily in the liver through a series of oxidative steps, finally yielding carbon dioxide (Berg et al., 2001).

Available literature reports that the main route of excretion in rats is expected to be by expired air as CO2. The second route of excretion is expected to be by biliary excretion and the feces. Exemplarily, experimental data of ethyl oleate (is the ethyl ester of oleic acid) provided this assumption: 14C-labeled carbon of 5 mL/kg of ethyl oleate (CAS No. 111-62-6) was rapidly excreted in respiration CO2 (approximately 70%), faeces (7 -10%), and urine (1-2%), with essentially complete elimination by 72 hours after administration (Bookstaff, 2003).

Furthermore, the toxicity to rats was found to be low for members of this category (repeated dose oral, NOAEL(90d) = 6000 mg/kg bw/d).

Since based on the available information, the potential for secondary poisoning of birds is very low, and for reasons of animal welfare, further testing on birds is not proposed.

References

Mattson, F.H. and Volpenheim, R.A., 1972, Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 10, 1969

Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L. and Stryer, L., 2002, Biochemistry, 5thedition, W.H. Freeman and Company