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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
21 Sep 1987 to 25 Sep 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412 L15
Version / remarks:
June, 1982
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 2-hydroxethyl acrylate
- Analytical purity: about 96.5%
- Lot/batch No.: 87/279
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
In the form of an aqueou solution (1.0 g/100 mL) the product was added to the test water; subsequently the fish were placed into the aquaria.
Test organisms (species):
Leuciscus idus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Golden orfe
- Source: Fischzucht Paul Eggers; D-2354 Hohenwestedt
- Length at study initiation: 5.7 cm (range 5.3 - 6.3)
- Weight at study initiation: 2.8 g (range 2.2 - 3.9)
- Corpulence factor of the batch: 1.5 (Determined September 23, 1987)

HOUSING:
The fish were kept in a flow-through tank in tap water cleaned by active carbon and aerated with oil-free air.
- Photoperiod: 16 h light and 8 h dark
- Total hardness: about 2.5 mmol/L
- Acid capacity: about 5.5 mmol/L
- Oxygen content: >60% of max. saturation
- pH: about 8.0
- Duration of housing and adaption: 3 weeks
- Water temperature: 21 ± 1 °C
- Mortality during the lat 2 weeks of housing: 0%
- Mortality during adaption period: 0%
- Medical treatment: twice with 0.05 mg/L malachite green chloride; once with 10 mg/Ltetracycline hydrochloride
- Adaptation to test water and test temperature: 3 days
- Diet: Growing Feed F/B 50 (Ssniff spezialdiaeten GmbH), available ad libitum
- Withdrawal of food: 1 day
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
2.5 mmol/L
Test temperature:
20 °C
pH:
7.5 - 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
7.9 - 8.7 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Test concetrations (nominal): 2.15, 4.64, 10.0 and 21.5 mg/L (based on a range-finding study)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: All-glass aquarium (30 cm x 22 cm x 24 cm)
- Volume of water: 10 L
- Aeration: slight
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Loading of fish: 2.8 g/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconstituted freshwater according to DIN 38412 (part 11)
- Acid capacity: 0.8 mmol/L
- Ca/Mg ratio: 4:1
- Na/K ratio: 10:1

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light and 8 h dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and symptoms were determined after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.2
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations: 2.15, 4.64, 10.0 and 21.5 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: The 96-h LC50 was determined to be between 3.2 and 10 mg/L.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
chloroacetamide
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.81 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: geometric mean of the LC0 and LC00
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
4.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
4.64 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
At the test group of 10.00 mg/L, 5 fish had died after 48 hours and 10 fish after 72 hours, respectively. At the test group of 21.50 mg/L, all fish had died after 24 hours. The only symptoms observed was tumbling at the test group of 10 mg/L after 48 hours.
- LC50 as reported in the original study report: LC50 > 4.64 - < 10 mg/L.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
The 48-h LC50 value of the reference substance was determined to be about 24 mg/L (determined September, 1987).
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Effect values were calculated with the Probit analysis (Finney, D.J., Probit analysis, Cambr. University. Press, 3rd Ed., 1971.

Table: Observed mortality after 1, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours exposure.

Nominal concentration (mg/L)

Number of fish

Dead fish after

1h

4h

24h

48h

72h

96h

0 (control)

10

0

 

0

0

0

0

2.15

10

0

 

0

0

0

0

4.64

10

0

 

0

0

0

0

10.00

10

0

 

0

5

10

10

21.50

10

0

 

10

10

10

10

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
In the study report, test parameters didn’t totally comply with the specific testing guideline, but were sufficient to accept data and study was conducted prior to the advent of GLP regulations (1982)
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Continuous flow test method
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study was conducted prior to the advent of GLP regulations)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinodon variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Sheepshead minnow
- Source: Test fish were collected from the Surfside Beach salt marsh area
- Length at study initiation (mean): 3.6 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean): 2.3 g
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Details on test conditions:
Stock solutions of HEA were dissolved in 50 gallons of seawater, mixed in polyethylene drums and pumped to a proportional diluter. Five fish were exposed at each concentration in the preliminary screening, while 10 individuals per concentration were used in the full scale tests to determine the 96- hour LC50. The proportional factor between concentrations was 0.5. Samples were extracted with diethyl ether and verified by Gas chromatography.
Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and chlorides were measured throughout the testing program according to standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 13th edition. Washington D.C: American Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation, 1971.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
17.5 mg/L
Basis for effect:
mortality
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Log-probit paper was used to calculate percent mortality versus concentration.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Remarks:
GLP-guideline study performed by japanese authorities, no study report available for review.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in report): 2-hydroxylethyl acrylate
- Analytical purity: no data
Test organisms (species):
Oryzias latipes
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.5 mg/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ASTM 1980
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate
- Analytical purity: >97%
- Storage condition of test material: 4 °C
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: fathead minnow
- Age at study initiation (range): 28 - 34 days
- Length at study initiation: 20.9 ± 2.0 mm
- Weight at study initiation: 0.134 ± 0.034 g
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
45.3 ± 1 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
24.6 ± 0.4 °C
pH:
7.62 ± 0.12
Dissolved oxygen:
6.71 ± 0.57 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior water filtered trough a sand/gravel filter
- Alkalinity: 47.0 ± 3.2 mg/L as CaCO3

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
4.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Justification for type of information:
Please find the attached justification in chapter 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.61 mg/L
Remarks on result:
other: test result from read-across source CAS 25584-83-2 (Russom, 1988).

Description of key information

Freshwater fish

The 96-h LC50 value is 4.8 mg/L in fish (Pimephales promelas).

Marine water fish

The 96-h LC50 value is 17.5 mg/L in fish (Cyprinodon variegatus).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
4.8 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
17.5 mg/L

Additional information

The acute toxicity to fish was investigated in several studies using different species. Specifics on conditions of the studies and results are tabulated below.

Species

Guideline/GLP

Test type

Endpoint

Effect value

Nominal/measured

Reference

Remarks

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980 / not specified

Flow-through

96-h LC50

4.8 mg/L

measured (arithm. mean)

Russom et al., 1988

 

Oryzias latipes

OECD 203 / yes

Static

96-h LC50

6.5 mg/L

unclear

MOE, 1998

 

Leuciscus idus

DIN 38412 L15 / no

Static

96-h LC50

6.81 mg/L

nominal

BASF, 1987

 

Cyprinodon variegatus

No guideline followed / no

Flow-through

96-h LC50

17.5 mg/L

unclear

Dow, 1978

Saltwater species

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980 / not specified

Flow-through

96-h LC50

3.61 mg/L

measured (arith. mean);

Russom et al., 1988

Based on read-across from CAS 25584-83-2

All of the studies that determined the acute toxicity of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate to freshwater fish, derived similar effect values (in the range of 1 - 10 mg/L). The lowest determined effect value of 4.6 mg/L (Russom, 1988) will be used as key value for the chemical safety assessment for freshwater fish. Also data on a saltwater fish species is available. The 96-h LC50 in saltwater species Cyprinodon variegatus was determined to be 17.5 mg/L (Dow, 1978) and will be used key value for the chemical safety assessment for marine water fish.