Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
dermal absorption
Type of information:
calculation (if not (Q)SAR)
Remarks:
Migrated phrase: estimated by calculation
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Only secondary source. For justification of read-across see CSR chapter 1.3.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Dermal exposure assessment: principles and applications
Author:
US EPA, Exposure Assessment Group
Year:
1992
Bibliographic source:
EPA/600/8-91/011B, Interim Report
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
HERAG (health risk assessment for metals) Assessment of occupational dermal exposure and dermal absorption for metals and inorganic metal compounds
Author:
EBRC Consulting GmbH
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
HERAG Fact Sheet 01, 2007

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
no guideline followed.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
not specified
Details on test material:
no data
Radiolabelling:
no

Test animals

Species:
other: no aimals tested
Strain:
other: no aimals tested

Administration / exposure

Type of coverage:
other: no aimals tested
Vehicle:
other: no aimals tested
Duration of exposure:
no aimals tested
Doses:
no aimals tested
No. of animals per group:
no aimals tested

Results and discussion

Conversion factor human vs. animal skin:
no animals tested

Any other information on results incl. tables

According to the EPA report on dermal exposure, most inorganics have Kp values (permeability coefficient for chemical from an unspecified vehicle through the skin) near 10-3cm/hour (substantially lower than those of most organic compounds) and a few even lower values are observed for inorganic substances. Accordingly, a default assumption of 10-3cm/hour is recommended by US EPA for inorganics that have not been tested.

In the HERAG fact sheet prepared by EBRC Consulting GmbH default dermal absorption factors for metal cations of maximal 1% are proposed.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Dermal absorption of inorganics is assumed to be below 10 %.

Executive summary:
According to the EPA report on dermal exposure, Kp values (permeability coefficient for chemical from an unspecified vehicle through the skin) near 10 exp-3 cm/hour (substantially lower than those of most organic compounds) and a few even lower values are observed for inorganic substances. Accordingly, a default assumption of 10-3 cm/hour is recommended by US EPA for inorganics that have not been tested (indicating a low level of dermal absorption). Based on this Kp a low absorption rate through the skin can be assumed. Others propose dermal absorption factors for metal cations of maximal 1% for inorganics (HERAG fact sheet). All in all, in a conservative approach dermal absorption of inorganics can be assumed to be < 10 %.