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EC number: 215-157-2
CAS number: 1308-06-1
Relevant and reliable data that
could be used for classification and PNEC for sediment-dwelling
organisms were retrieved for three species: Hyalella azteca, Tubifex
tubifex, Lumbriculus variegatus. The toxicity values range
from 698 mg Co/kg for H. azteca to >2170 mg Co/kg for L.
variegatus. Tests followed international accepted guidance and
were based on measured levels of cobalt dichloride.
quality chronic toxicity tests were identified for three benthic
invertebrates. EC10 values ranged from 698 mg Co/kg for Hyalella
azteca (OSU 2018) to >2170 mg Co/kg for Lumbriculus variegatus (Nguyen
et al., 2009b). Cobalt
toxicity (on the basis of EC10 values - mg Co/kg sediment [dry weight] -
for the most sensitive endpoint) for the three benthic species can be
ranked as follows: H. azteca > T. tubifex > L.
following table indicates those EC10 values of high quality that have
been carried forward for the HC5 and PNEC derivation.
Key Study (freshwater sediment)
Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the freshwater sediment HC5
Value(s) (mg Co/kg dw)
Nguyen et al (2009a)
Nguyen et al (2009b)
data suggests that cobalt bioavailability is affected by sediment
physical: chemical characteristics. No
chronic effects of cobalt were observed when SEMCo/AVS ≤ 1
(SEMCo-AVS ≤ 0), implying the applicability of the SEM/AVS
approach for predicting cobalt sediment toxicity. Additional empirical
studies are on-going that will aid in the characterization and
quantification of those sediment parameters that affect cobalt
reliable acute or chronic toxicity data for the marine sediment
compartment were identified in the open literature or grey literature. It
was, therefore, decided to derive a PNECsediment, marine from
the previously derived PNECsediment,freshwater. Because
of the observed decreased sensitivity of marine water-column dwelling
organisms versus freshwater water-column dwelling organisms, it was felt
that the use of the PNECsediment, freshwater was an
environmentally conservative approach that would be protective of the
marine environment. Studies are on-going that will validate
the acceptability of this assumption.
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