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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
15 February 2006- 13 July 2006
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
GLP - Guideline study, tested with the source substance ziram (CAS No. 137-30-4). In accordance to the ECHA guidance document “Practical guide 6: How to report read-across and categories (March 2010)”, the reliability was changed from RL1 to RL2 to reflect the fact that this study was conducted on an read-across substance
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPP 122-1 (Terrestrial Plant Toxicity Tier I (seedling emergence))
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Onion
- Plant family: Lililaceae
- Variety: WI609
- Source of seed: Wannamaker Seeds, St. Matthews, SC, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): > 80 %
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Ryegrass
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Manhattan 4
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Wheat
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Polk
- Source of seed: Johnny´s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 85 %
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Corn
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Mandan Bride
- Source of seed: Johnny´s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 94 %
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Cabbage
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Late Flat Dutch
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 85 %
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Turnip
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Purple Top White Globe
- Source of seed: Park Seed Wholesale, Inc., Greenwood, SC, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Radish
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Cherry Belle
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Soy bean
- Plant family: Fabaceae
- Variety: Black Jet
- Source of seed: Johnny´s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 98 %
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Lettuce
- Plant family: Asteraceae
- Variety: Buttercrunch
- Source of seed: Johnny´s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 99 %
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Tomato
- Plant family: Solanaceae
- Variety: Rutgers
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Test temperature:
15.94 - 33.83 °C
Moisture:
9.5-69.08 %
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: Wildlife International, Ltd., Easton, Maryland, U.S.A
- Test container: Commercial plastic flower pots (16 cm diameter and 12 cm deep)
- No. of seeds per container: Each pot contained 10 seeds; in total 40 seeds per species and treatment group were tested.
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)The soil was analysed by Agvise Laboratories, Inc., Northwood, North Dakota, USA.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 65
- % silt: 18
- % clay: 17
pH: 7.3
- Organic carbon (%): 2.2

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: Artificial lighting was used to supplement natural sunlight in order to provide 16 h photoperiod.
- Light source: Natural and artificial
- Relative humidity (%): range 9.5-69.08 %
- Wind velocity: n.a. Test performed in a greenhouse.
- Watering: Seedlings were sub irrigated with well water from the greenhouse facility
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Negative control and 9 kg/ha (34,470 ppm a.i.)
Species:
other: Allium cepa, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Raphanus sativus, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
other: NOAEC
Effect conc.:
9 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: seedling emergence, survival and growth (weight or height)

No adverse effects on seedling emergence, survival, growth (weight or height) or condition of the ten terrestrial plant species tested was observed. Therefore additional testing (Tier II) was not warranted.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The validity criteria can be considered fulfilled according to the mentioned guideline.
Executive summary:

Materials and methods: Ziram 76WG formulation at the label rate of 9 kg/ha was applied according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Series 850 – Ecological Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS Number 850.4100 to test the Terrestrial Plant Toxicity, Tier I (Seedling emergence). The test was performed during 21days in a green house under controlled test conditions with 10 plant species:Allium cepa, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Raphanus sativus, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicon esculentum.

Results and discussion: No adverse effects on seedling emergence, survival, growth (weight or height) or condition of the ten terrestrial plant species tested was observed. Therefore additional testing (Tier II) was not warranted.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
15.02.2006- 21.07.2006
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
GLP - Guideline study, tested with the source substance ziram (CAS No. 137-30-4). In accordance to the ECHA guidance document “Practical guide 6: How to report read-across and categories (March 2010)”, the reliability was changed from RL1 to RL2 to reflect the fact that this study was conducted on an read-across substance
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPP 122-1 (Terrestrial Plant Toxicity Tier I (vegetative vigor))
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Onion
- Plant family: Lililaceae
- Variety: WI609
- Source of seed: Wannamaker Seeds, St. Matthews, SC, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): > 80 %
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Ryegrass
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Manhattan 4
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Ryegrass
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Manhattan 4
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Corn
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Mandan Bride
- Source of seed: Johnny´s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 94 %
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Cabbage
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Late Flat Dutch
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 85 %
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Turnip
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Purple Top White Globe
- Source of seed: Park Seed Wholesale, Inc., Greenwood, SC, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Radish
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Cherry Belle
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Soy bean
- Plant family: Fabaceae
- Variety: Black Jet
- Source of seed: Johnny´s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 98 %
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Lettuce
- Plant family: Asteraceae
- Variety: Buttercrunch
- Source of seed: Johnny´s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 99 %
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Tomato
- Plant family: Solanaceae
- Variety: Rutgers
- Source of seed: The Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90 %
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Test temperature:
17.07- 31.02 °C
Moisture:
12.57 - 77.00 %
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: Wildlife International, Ltd., Easton, Maryland, U.S.A
- Test container: Commercial plastic flower pots (11 cm diameter and 10 cm deep)
- No. of plants per replicate per dose: 5 plants, with each plant contained in a separate pot, in total 30 plants per species and treatment group were tested.
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 6
- No. of replicates per control: 4


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)The soil was analysed by Agvise Laboratories, Inc., Northwood, North Dakota, USA.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 65
- % silt: 18
- % clay: 17
pH: 7.3
- Organic carbon (%): 2.2

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: Artificial lighting was used to supplement natural sunlight in order to provide 16 h photoperiod.
- Light source: Natural and artificial
- Relative humidity (%): range 9.5-69.08 %
- Wind velocity: n.a. Test performed in a greenhouse.
- Watering: Seedlings were sub irrigated with well water from the greenhouse facility
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Negative control
Test item. 9 kg/ha
For radish: 0.56, 1.1, 2.3, 4.5 and 9.0 kg/ha
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
9 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: Plant survival, condition and growth
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The validity criteria can be considered fulfilled according to the mentioned guideline.
Executive summary:

Materials and methods: Ziram 76WG formulation at the maximum label rate of 9.0 kg/ha was applied according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Series 850 – Ecological Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS Number 850.4150: Terrestrial Plant Toxicity, Tier I (Vegetative vigor). The test was performed for 21days in green house under controlled test conditions with 10 plant species:Allium cepa, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Raphanus sativus, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicon esculentum. The application rate of 9.0 kg/ha was determined to be a NOEC for r. sativus and additional (Tier II - OPPTS Number 850.4250) testing was not warranted for the remaining nine species

Results and discussion: There were no treatment-related effects and no reductions of 25 % or more on the survival, height or dry weight in the 9 kg/ha group means relative to the control of Allium cepa, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa and Lactuca sativa. There were no observed signs of toxicity onAllium cepa, Glycine max or Lactuca sativa plants during the test. One or more incidental signs of toxicity, such as necrosis, chlorosis and leaf curl were observed onLolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Raphanus sativus, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicon esculentum. The observed signs were typically slight, restricted to a few plants and did not appear to be response to the test substance. By the test termination, several Brassica rapa plants showed chlorosis and leaf curl and necrosis was observed on a few of the plants. The conditions of control and treatment group plants appeared to be similar there fore the conditions were considered incidental to treatment. There were no treatment-related effects on the height, weight or survival of Raphanus sativus at any of the rates tested. There were two plants that died during the test, one each in the 9.0 and 4.5 kg/ha groups, however other plants in the treatment did not appear to show any treatment related signs of toxicity.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Data waiving:
other justification
Justification for data waiving:
other:

Description of key information

No significant effects were observed in terrestrial plants after 21 days exposure at a concentration of 9 kg/ha

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

No data on toxicity to terrestrial plants is available for disulfiram (CAS No. 97 -77-8).Therefore, a conclusion based on analogue approach had to be drawn. Zinc(bis) dimethyldithiocarbamate (CAS No. 137-30-4) which is structurally and composition related to tetraethylthiuram disulfide, was tested in two studies (Porch, 2006 a and 2006b). Both tests were conducted according to the EPA OPP 122-1 Guideline (Terrestrial Plant Toxicity Tier I), investigating the effect of this substance in seedling emergence and vegetative vigour respectively, under GLP conditions. No significant adverse effects were observed in any of these tests after 21 days exposure at a concentration of 9 kg/ha.

Long-term toxicity testing is not deemed necessary considering the expected rapid degradation of disulfiram in soil (half-life < 10 days) and the absence of toxic effects in the short-term studies performed with the analogue substance, zinc(bis) dimethyldithiocarbamate.