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Ecotoxicological information

Ecotoxicological Summary

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Administrative data

Hazard for aquatic organisms

Freshwater

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Marine water

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

STP

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Sediment (freshwater)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Sediment (marine water)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for air

Air

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Soil

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for predators

Secondary poisoning

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no potential for bioaccumulation

Additional information

The pigment silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment-encapsulated is environmentally and biologically inert due to the characteristics of thesynthetic process (calcination at high temperatures, approximately 1000°C), rendering the substance to be of a unique, stable crystalline structure in which all atoms are tightly bound and not prone to dissolution in environmental and physiological media.Based on the resulting physico-chemical properties, especially the high insolubility of the pigment under environmental conditions, demonstrated (Knopf, 2013) via transformation/dissolution testing (7 and 28 days), the substance can be expected to not have a potential to cross or adsorb to biological membranes. Therefore, no reversible or irreversible adverse toxicological effects on aquatic or terrestrial life-forms are expected, and a PNEC derivation is scientifically not justifiable.

Transformation/dissolution of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated was investigated according to the method OECD test series No. 29

(Guidance document on transformation/dissolution of metals and metal compounds in aqueous media). The transformation/dissolution of the pigment resulted in the following dissolved concentrations:

1 mg/L loading after 28 days:

-      Cadmium: 0.34 ± 0.09 µg/L and 0.86 ± 0.39 µg/L at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively

-      Selenium: <LOD and <LOQ (0.08 µg/L) at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively

-      Zirconium: <LOQ (0.001 µg/L) and <LOD at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively

10 mg/L loading after 7 days at pH 6:

-      Cadmium : 1.97 ± 0.34 µg/L

-      Selenium: 0.16 ± 0.03 µg/L

-      Zirconium: below LOD/LOQ, except vessel/sample 1a with 0.16 µg/L

100 mg/L loading after 7 days at pH 6:

-      Cadmium: 3.13 ± 0.40 µg/L

-      Selenium: 0.44 µg/L ± 0.12

-      Zirconium: <LOD

Aquatic toxicity: freshwater, short-term

The table below presents an overview of the reliable acute aquatic toxicity data available for the hazard assessment of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated.Concentrations are based on water accomodated fractions (WAF).

 

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

growth rate

72-h EC50

> 100 mg/L (WAF)

Wenzel, 2013

Daphnia magna

mortality 

48-h EC50 

6840 mg/L (WAF)

Weyand, 2000

Brachydanio rerio

mortality 

96-h LC50 

> 10000 mg/L (WAF)

Weyand, 2001

 

Invertebrates:The acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was determined according to OECD Guideline 202 (Weyand, 2000). Daphnids did not become immobilized during the test period of 48 h at tested concentrations up to 4000 mg/L (water accommodated fraction-WAF); the respective 48-h EC50 is 6840 mg/L (WAF).

 

Fish:Information on acute fish toxicity is available from a study performed according to OECD Guideline 203. Fish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 96 hours to water accommodated fractions up to 10000 mg/L under static conditions. At all tested loadings, neither behavioral abnormalities nor mortality occurred.

 

Algae:The toxic effects of the water accommodated fractions of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated on the growth rate of algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were studied in a state-of-the-art test according to OECD Guideline 201 (Wenzel, 2013). The EC50 value for the 72-h inhibition of growth rate of P. subcapitata is  > 100 mg/L (WAF).

 

Aquatic toxicity: freshwater, long-term

The table below presents an overview of the reliable long-term aquatic toxicity data available for the hazard assessment of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated.Concentrations are based on water accomodated fractions.

 

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

growth rate

72-h EC10

> 100 mg/L (WAF)

Wenzel, 2013

 

Chronic toxicity data of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated are available for algae. The long-term toxic effects of the Water Accommodated Fractions (WAF) of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated on the growth rate of algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were studied in a state-of-the-art test according to OECD Guideline 201 (Wenzel, 2013). The EC10 value for the 72-h inhibition of growth rate of P. subcapitata is  > 100 mg/L (WAF).

 

Acute aquatic toxicity data at three trophic levels (algae, daphnia, fish) and from standard toxicity tests indicate a lack of an acute toxic potential of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated in the aquatic environment, i.e. all EC50 values are above 100 mg/L. Chronic toxicity data for algae indicate a lack of a toxicity potential of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated in the aquatic environment long-term for this trophic level which may be explained at least in parts with the insolubility of the pigment.

 

Thus, based on available short-term and long-term aquatic toxicity data, classification and labelling for aquatic toxicity is not required in accordance with Directive 67/548 EEC and CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (Table  4.1.0 (b) (iii)).

 

 

Conclusion on classification

Based on the high insolubility of the pigment under environmental conditions, demonstrated (Knopf, 2013) via transformation/dissolution testing (7 and 28 days), no reversible or irreversible adverse toxicological effects on aquatic or terrestrial organisms are expected.

Chronic toxicity data of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated are available for algae. The long-term toxic effects of the Water Accommodated Fractions (WAF) of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated on the growth rate of algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were studied in a state-of-the-art test according to OECD Guideline 201 (Wenzel, 2013). The EC10 value for the 72-h inhibition of growth rate of P. subcapitata is  > 100 mg/L (WAF).

 

Acute aquatic toxicity data at three trophic levels (algae, daphnia, fish) and from standard toxicity tests indicate a lack of an acute toxic potential of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated in the aquatic environment, i.e. all EC50 values are above 100 mg/L. Chronic toxicity data for algae indicate a lack of a toxicity potential of silicic acid, zirconium salt, cadmium pigment encapsulated in the aquatic environment long-term for this trophic level which may be explained at least in parts with the insolubility of the pigment.

 

Thus, based on available short-term and long-term aquatic toxicity data, classification and labelling for aquatic toxicity is not required in accordance with Directive 67/548 EEC and CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (Table  4.1.0 (b) (iii)).