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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Already evaluated by the Competent Authorities for Biocides and Existing Substance Regulations.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Sublethal Toxicity of Copper to a Soil-Dwelling Springtail (Folsomia fimetaria) (Collembola: Isotomidae)
Author:
Scott-Fordsmand, J.J., Krogh P.H. & Weeks, J.M.
Year:
1997
Bibliographic source:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16: 12; 2538-2542

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
This was a non-regulatory study designed to examine the effect of copper on the survival and reproductive success of the springtail Folsomia candida.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
soil

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
IUCLID4 Test substance: other TS: Cu2+ as delivered as copper chloride
Analytical purity: no data

Sampling and analysis

Details on sampling:
at tend

Test substrate

Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Substrate type: other: LUFA 2.2 soil.
pH 5.5, TOC 2.3%, Clay 5%, silt 13% and sand 82% ; background Cu concentration: 5.2 mg/kg dw, CEC 7.8 cmol/kg
Equilibration time: 1 day

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Folsomia sp.
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
test organisms obtained from a laboratory culture of the memiedaphic, nonpigmented and eyeless Collembola F. fimetaria L.

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
21 d

Test conditions

Test temperature:
20°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
5.5 to 6.0
Humidity:
soil was moistened at T0 and T=14 days
Photoperiod and lighting:
12h/12h light dark regime
Details on test conditions:
experiment was conducted in microcosms containing 25.5 g dry soil to which 20 collembola were added.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
5 test concentrations (between 200 and 1000 mg/kg) + 1 control (0 mg/kg)

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
800 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
542 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
845 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
400 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Tukey's studentized range test (NOEC)

Any other information on results incl. tables

RS-Freetext:
No significant mortality was observed for adults exposed to
copper at all soil copper concentrations, whereas juvenile
survival was significantly reduced at 1000 mg Cu/kg, with a
10% decrease occurring at 878 mg Cu/kg (Table 1).

The overall growth pattern (change in surface area) was
similar for both sexes, resulting in concave curves that
fitted logistic growth for all but the two highest copper
concentrations for both sexes (Figure 1). Defining
differences in growth as the difference between final body
surface areas of the test organisms growth was significantly
(P<0.05) affected following 21 days of exposure to copper,
with a significant reduction in growth occurring at a soil
concentration of 400 mg Cu/kg for males (Figure 2) and at
800 mg Cu/kg for females (Figure 2), the calculated 10%
growth reduction being 542 and 845 mg Cu/kg for males and
females respectively. Reduction in juvenile final body size
was more sensitive than that for adults, being affected at
600 mg Cu/kg, resulting in a 10% decrease in growth at 527
mg Cu/kg (Figure 2). Reproduction was clearly affected
following exposure to copper with a significant reduction
(p<0.05) at 200 mg Cu/kg, and an estimated 10% reduction at
only 38 mg Cu/kg after 14 days of exposure (Figure 3 and
Table 1).

There was no significant mortality of adults over different
exposure times in any of the dose groups tested. Adult
final body size, with the exception of males, was also not
affected by differences in the duration of copper exposure.
Male final body size was significantly (P<0.05) reduced at a
soil copper concentration of 600 mg Cu/kg after both 7 and
14 day exposure and at 400 mg Cu/kg after 21 days exposure.
However, when comparing the calculated EC10 values for
growth of copper exposed animals, no differences in growth
between exposure times were observed.

Soil copper concentrations of 200 mg Cu/kg and above had a
clear effect on reproduction after both 14 and 21 days. The
lowest effect levels were similar at both exposure times (14
and 21 days) giving a significant reduction in the number of
juveniles (P<0.05) at 200 mg Cu/kg.

The 21-day NOEC for adult mortality was determined to be
=>1000 mg/kg as calculated by both the added and total risk
approach respectively.

The 21-day NOEC for juvenile mortality was determined to be
800 and 809 mg Cu/kg as calculated by both the added and
total risk approach respectively.

According to the article, the NOEC for male growth after 21
days is 200 mg/kg (female growth: 600 mg/kg) and the LOEC is
400 mg/kg (800 mg/kg). However, as the EC10 is higher than
the LOEC (542 and 845 mg/kg for males and females
respectively) there is less than 10% inhibition and the
reported EC10's are considered to be the NOEC.

The NOEC for adult final body size was determined to be 400
and 409 mg/kg as calculated by the added and total risk
approach method respectively.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Good quality study. NOEC data for F. fimetaria were used for the PNEC derivation. Reliable added NOEC values are 800 mg/kg for the endpoint mortality and between 400 and 845 for the endpoint growth.
Executive summary:

CL-Freetext:

The collembolan Folsomia fimetaria was exposed to a range of

copper concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg)

in a LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5, organic carbon 2.3, clay 5%,

silt 13% and sand 82%) for up to 21 days. At the end of the

experiment juveniles and adults were assessed for survival,

growth and reproduction.

The results showed that F. fimetaria was sensitive to

copper, with reproduction being a more sensitive parameter

of effect than either growth (measured as final body size)

or survival. A 10% effective concentration (EC10) of 38 mg

Cu/kg was calculated for reproduction, and an EC10 of

between 509-845 mg Cu/kg (depending on sex and development

stage) was calculated for growth. No mortality was observed

in adults for soil concentrations up to 1000 mg Cu/kg. The

duration of copper exposure was not an important factor in

the determination of effects during short term tests.