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EC number: 231-847-6
CAS number: 7758-98-7
High quality effects endpoints on micro-organisms are available for : heterotrophic respiration inhibition, nitrification inhibition and effects on ciliated protozoa from sewage treatment plants. The NOEC/L(E)C10 values from these studies are carried forward for the PNEC derivation in a WOE approach.
NOECS for micro-organisms- STP
Data on the toxicity tests performed
with aquatic bacteria and protozoa, reported as L(E)C50and
NOEC values. The following high quality publications were selected for
assessing the toxic effects of copper on bacterial populations: Dutka
(1983), Waara (1992), Madoni et al. (1996), Milksch & Schürmann (1988),
Almanza et al. (1996), Fiebig & Noack (2004) and the results from the
Cha et al. (2003) research project. The
date from Sauvant et al., 1997 ; Schäfer et al., 1994, Girling et al.,
2000 were used
for assessing the effects on protozoan populations
The exposure time among reports varied
from short term batch exposures to continuous exposures. The effects
endpoints on micro-organisms covered are: heterotrophic
respiration inhibition, nitrification inhibition and effects on ciliated
The bacterial studies using mixed
population tests (e.g. activated sludge) representative for microbial
degradation in STP, resulted in NOECvalues (reported as total or nominal
concentrations) ranging from <0.5-1 and 5.4 mg/l for the heterotrophs
and between 3.5 and >20 mg/l for the nitrifiers. The EC50values
for the micro-organisms representative for microbial degradation in STP
range from 2.1 to 26 mg/l Cu (as total or nominal copper) for the
heterotrophs and between 9.9 and 49.1 mg/l for the nitrifiers (as total
or nominal copper). Expressed as dissolved copper concentrations, a NOEC
range for heterotrophs between 0.23 and 0.45 mg/l was observed. For the
nitrifiers, a NOEC range between 0.26 and >0.92 mg/l was observed .
Protozoan tests resulted in NOEC/L(E)C50
values depending on the test species and test-set-up used. The
short term tests withT. pyriformis, the species recommended by
revisions 2003), resulted in NOEC and EC50(growth) values
between, respectively, 3.6 - 3.8 mg/l and 8.0-10.2 mg/l nominal copper.
These toxicity test results are based on short term experiments (between
2 and 4 days) performed in artificial media. The results obtained from
protozoan communities were deemed to be more representative for the
functioning of STPs and were therefore retained for the PNEC derivation.
Accross endpoints/studies 0.23 mg dissolved Cu/L
was considered as the most reliable NOEC
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