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EC number: 231-847-6
CAS number: 7758-98-7
High quality chronic single-species NOEC/(L(E)C10 values are available for 13 freshwater invertebrate species. A chronic Biotic Ligand Model was developed for D. magna and validated for 4 additional speicies . The NOECs and the chronic invertebrates Biotic ligand models (BLM) are carried forward to the risk characterisation.
High quality chronic single-species NOEC/(L(E)C10 values are available for 18 marine invertebrate species. The observed effects are related to the organic carbon contant of the test waters. The NOECS and organic carbon relationships are carried forward to the risk characterisation.
Freshwater invertebrate NOECS
High quality chronic NOEC/(L(E) C10 values
are available for 13 species: 1 rotifer species (Brachionus
calyciflorus); 3 insect species (Clistoronia magnifica;
Chironomus riparius; Paratanytarsus parthenogeneticus), 4 mollusc
species (Juga plicifera, Campeloma decisum; Villosa iris; Dreissenia
polymorpha), 5 crustacean species (Ceriodaphnia dubia; Daphnia
magna; Daphnia pulex; Hyalella azteca; Gammarus pulex).
Individual NOEC/(L(E) C10 values range
between 4 µg Cu/L (Cerodaphnia dubia) to 188 µg Cu/L (Daphnia
The NOECs are used to derive “species
geo-metric mean” NOEC values for each endpoint and the most sensitive
endpoint for each of the 13 species of invertebrates retained as
"species-mean" NOEC values. These "species mean" NOEC values range from
6.0 µg/l Cu for the snailJuga plicifera(mortality; 1 test
value) to 50.3 µg/l Cu amphipodHyalella azteca(mortality)
and are carried forward for the PNEC derivation. 20 NOECs are available
for standard species, with internationally agreed protocols. For these
species, the "species mean" NOECS are derived (C. dubia(13.1
µg Cu /L),D. magna(12.6 µg Cu/L) and 14.5 (D. pulex))
and these are used for Classification and Labelling purposes.
Large intra-species variability is observed
in NOEC: L(E) C10 values. Effects data fromDaphnia magnawere used
to develop a chronic invertebrate BLM (De Schamphelaere et al., 2004).
The capacity of the BLM for predicting of copper toxicity to other
invertebrate species was demonstrated from copper toxicity studies withBrachionus
calyciflorus (De Schamphelaere 2006), Lampilis siliquoide (Kunz
et al., 2006), Hyridella depressa (Marckish et al, 2003) and
Hyalella azteca (Borgman et al.,2006).
The database contains a paper demonstrating
that dietary copper exposure does not affect the capacity of the biotic
ligand model to predict toxicity to D. magna
Research related to copper acclimation and
deficiency (Bossuyt et al, 2004) demonstrated that after three
generation of acclimation, the optimal concentration ranges (from energy
reserves and number of offspring) remained constant between 1and35 µg
Cu/L. Below1 µg Cu/L (a concentration often used as background copper
concentration in the ecotoxicity media), copper deficiency was clearly
Marine invertebrate NOECs
32 high quality NOEC: L(E) C10 were retained.
for 18 different individual species belonging to different taxonomic
groups:6 mollusc species (Mytilus edulis; Prototheca staminea;
Crassostrea gigas, Mercenaria mercenaria, Mytilus galloprovincialis,
Placopecten magellanicus),1 annelid species (Neanthes
arenaceodentata)3 decapod (crustacean) species (Pandalus danae;
Penaeus mergulensis;Penaeus monodon),3 copepod (crustacean)
species(Eurytemora affinis; Tisbe battagliai, Tisbe furcata), 1
arthropod (crustacean) species (Artemia franciscana) 1 echinoderm
species (Paracentrotus lividus),3 cnidaria species(Acropora
tenuis, Goniastrea aspera, Lobophytum compactum)
Reliable species- NOEC: L(E) C10 values (µg
Cu/l) are calculated for the most sensitive endpoints for 18 species.
The species- specific NOEC values range from 5.9 µg Cu/L for bivalveMytilus
galloprovincialisto 145 µgCu/L for the crustaceaPenaeus
monodonand carried forward for the marine PNEC derivation.
The observed NOEC: L(E) C10 values are
influenced by the dissolved organic carbon content of the test media. A
relation between the observed NOEC and organic carbon content was
established forMytillus edulis. Its applicability to other
invertebrate species was demonstrated forCrassostreas gigas and
Paracentrotus lividus, Dendraster exentricus and Strogolocentrus
purpuratus,Mytilus galloprovincialis(Arnold et al, 2008 and
2010, Hall 2010 and Brooks 2006)
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