Registration Dossier

Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 1973 to 1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The EU RAR summarises the results of a number of acute invertebrate toxicity studies which, individually, have limitations regarding study design and reliability. However, the results of these studies when taken as a whole, provide an adequate estimate of the acute toxicity to aquatic invertebrates. The data are considered to fulfil the criteria laid down in Annex XI to Regulation 1907/2006: adequate for classification and labelling, adequate coverage of key parameters (lethality), exposure duration comparable or longer that Article 13(3) methods ( 48 hours), adequate documentation provided: EU RAR, of which parts have been copied to this endpoint record. Reliability for endpoint also increased based on test results from several species.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
European Union Risk Assessment Report: chromium trioxide, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, ammonium dichromate and potassium dichromate
Author:
European Chemicals Bureau
Year:
2005
Bibliographic source:
3rd. Priority List; Volume 53

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Guideline:
other: range of studies included
Deviations:
not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Several studies, collectively, provide a weight-of-evidence to support the acute toxicity
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
For some invertebrates, toxicity data is available for more than one of the chromium (VI) compounds included in this assessment. The limited available information indicates that, when expressed on a total chromium concentration, there are no significant differences between the toxicity of sodium chromate, sodium dichromate and potassium dichromate (allowing for differences in water properties). This is as would be expected if the equilibria between the chromate and dichromate anions are established in the test medium. Little information is available for ammonium dichromate and chromic acid, but it would be expected that their toxicity would be similar to that of the other chromates/dichromates, when expressed on a total
chromium concentration basis.

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Various sampling procedures based on multiple studies

Test solutions

Details on test solutions:
Various test media prepared based on multiple studies in freshwater and salt water

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Range of species tested

Study design

Test type:
other: Range of test designs used
Water media type:
not specified
Post exposure observation period:
None reported

Test conditions

Hardness:
Range used from multiple studies
Test temperature:
Range used from multiple studies
pH:
Range used from multiple studies
Dissolved oxygen:
Range used from multiple studies
Salinity:
Range used from multiple studies
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Range used from multiple studies
Details on test conditions:
Range used from multiple studies
Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Details on results:
PPotassium dichromate is recommended as a reference substance in the acute toxicity to Daphnia test (Method C.2; EEC, 1992). A ring test involving 129 EC50 determinations from 46 laboratories determined the mean 24h-EC50 value as 1.5 mg K2Cr2O7/l (EEC, 1992). This is
equivalent to an EC50 of 0.53 mg Cr/l, expressed on a concentration of chromium basis. The toxicity of chromium (VI) to invertebrates in short-term tests appears to depend on water properties such as hardness, pH and temperature. Persoone et al. (1989) noted decreasing EC50
values for Daphnia magna with decreasing hardness and with increasing temperature. Although the conditions included some which were outside those recommended, checks were carried out to make sure that they did not cause mortality or stress in the controls. Longer term tests appear
to show less influence of the properties on toxicity, but there are few if any studies where the properties have been varied. It may be noted that there are no long-term studies in low hardness waters (<50 mg CaCO3/l). For some invertebrates, toxicity data is available for more than one of the chromium (VI) compounds included in this assessment. The limited available information indicates that, when expressed on a total chromium concentration, there are no significant differences between the toxicity of sodium chromate, sodium dichromate and potassium dichromate (allowing for
differences in water properties). This is as would be expected if the equilibria between the chromate and dichromate anions are established in the test medium. Little information is available for ammonium dichromate and chromic acid, but it would be expected that their toxicity would be similar to that of the other chromates/dichromates, when expressed on a total chromium concentration basis.

Any other information on results incl. tables

The results of the acute aquatic invertebrate toxicity studies evaluated in the EU RAR are summarised below:

Species

Endpoint

Value (mg/L)

Reference

Freshwater

Crustaceans

Ceriodaphnia sp

48 h LC50

0.03

Dorn et al. (1987)

Ceriodaphnia dubia

24 h LC50

0.053

Hickey (1989)

Ceriodaphnia pulchella

24 h LC50

0.196

Hickey (1989)

Ceriodaphnia reticulata

48 h EC50

0.195a

Elnabarawy et al. (1986)

Crangonyx pseudogracilis

96 h LC50

0.42

Martin and Holdrich (1986)

Daphnia carinata

24 h EC50

0.423

Hickey (1989)

Daphnia magna

48 h EC50

0.035
0.112a
0.05b

Stephenson and Watts (1984)

Elnabarawy et al. (1986)

Trabalka and Gehrs (1977)

Daphnia obtuse

48 h EC50

0.061

Coniglio and Baudo (1989)

Daphnia pulex

48 h EC50

0.063
0.122a
0.18c

Dorn et al. (1987)

Elnabarawy et al. (1986)

Jop et al. (1987)

Macrobrachium lamarrei

96 h LC50

0.65

Murti et al. (1983)

Simocephalus vetulas

24 h EC50

0.154

Hickey (1989)

Insects

Chironomus tentans

48 h LC50

11.8

Khangarot and Ray (1989a)

Molluscs

Biomphalaria glabrata

96 h LC50

37.3

Bellavere and Gorbi (1981)

Goniobasis levescens

48 h LC50

2.4

Cairns Jr. et al. (1976)

Lymnaea acuminata

96 h LC50

5.97

Khangarot et al (1982)

Lymnaea emarginata

48 h LC50

34.8

Cairns Jr. et al. (1976)

Physa integra

48 h LC50

0.66

Cairns Jr. et al. (1976)

Polychaetes

Acolosoma haedlyi

48 h LC50

8.6

Cairns Jr. et al. (1978)

Enchytreaus albidus

96 h LC50

0.67

Roembke and Knacker (1989)

Rotifers

Philodina acuticumis

48 h LC50

29

Cairns Jr. et al. (1978)

Philodena roseola

96 h LC50

5.5b

Schaefer and Pipes (1973)

Salt water

Crustaceans

Allorchestes compressa

96 h LC50

5.56

Ahsanullah (1982)

Artemia sp

24 h LC50

13.7

Vanhaeke and Persoone (1981)

Artemia salina

24 h LC50
48 h LC50

7.8
7.9b

Persoone et al. (1989)

Kissa et al. (1984)

Callinectes sapidus*

96 h LC50

34

Frank and Robertson (1979)

Cancer magister

96 h LC50

3.44

Martin et al. (1981)

Corophium volutator

96 h LC50

4.4

Bryant et al. (1981)

Mysidopsis almyra

48 h EC50

5.13

Dorn et al. (1987)

Mysidopsis bahia

48 h EC50

2.03
6.0c

Lussier et al. (1985)

Jop et al. (1987)

Nitocra spinipes*

96 h LC50

5.7

Lindén et al. (1979)

Palaemonetes pugio

96 h LC50

4.86c

Conklin et al. (1983)

Praunus fluxuosus

96 h LC50

10

McLusky and Hagerman (1987)

Tisbe holothuriae

48 h LC50

8.1b

Moraitou-Apostolopoulou and Veriopoulos (1982)

Molluscs

Crassostrea gigas

48 h EC50

4.54

Martin et al. (1981)

Mathoma balthica

96 h LC50

29

Bryant et al. (1984)

Rangia cuneata

96 h TLm

14

Olson and Harrel (1973)

Polychaetes

Capitella capitata

96 h LC50

5.0a

Reish et al. (1976)

Neanthes arenaceodentata

7 d LC50

1.63

Mearns et al. (1976)

Nereis diversicolor

96 h LC50

7.5

Bryant et al. (1984)

Rotifer

Branchionus plicatilis*

24 h LC50

51.6

Persoone et al. (1989)

Notes:

All results are from tests with potassium dichromate except:

a sodium dichromate;

b sodium chromate;

c potassium chromate.

All concentrations as Cr. * - tested in brackish water

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Based on a comprehensive review of existing data in the EU RAR, an acceptable assessment of the acute toxicity of chromium (VI) is achieved.

Executive summary:

Potassium dichromate is recommended as a reference substance in the acute toxicity to Daphnia test (Method C.2; EEC, 1992). A ring test involving 129 EC50 determinations from 46 laboratories determined the mean 24h-EC50 value as 1.5 mg K2Cr2O7/l (EEC, 1992). This is equivalent to an EC50 of 0.53 mg Cr/l, expressed on a concentration of chromium basis. The toxicity of chromium (VI) to invertebrates in short-term tests appears to depend on water properties such as hardness, pH and temperature. Persoone et al. (1989) noted decreasing EC50 values for Daphnia magna with decreasing hardness and with increasing temperature. Although the conditions included some which were outside those recommended, checks were carried out to make sure that they did not cause mortality or stress in the controls.

For some invertebrates, toxicity data is available for more than one of the chromium (VI) compounds included in this assessment. The limited available information indicates that, when expressed on a total chromium concentration, there are no significant differences between the toxicity of sodium chromate, sodium dichromate and potassium dichromate (allowing for differences in water properties). This is as would be expected if the equilibria between the chromate and dichromate anions are established in the test medium. Little information is available for ammonium dichromate and chromic acid, but it would be expected that their toxicity would be similar to that of the other chromates/dichromates, when expressed on a total chromium concentration basis.