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EC number: 205-592-6 | CAS number: 143-22-6
-NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 25,310 workers (50 of these are female) are potentially exposed to triethylene glycol monobutyl ether or (2-(2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol) in the US. Occupational exposure to triethylene glycol monobutyl ether may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where triethylene glycol monobutyl ether is produced or used (SRC). Monitoring and use data indicate that the general population may be exposed to triethylene glycol monobutyl ether via ingestion of contaminated drinking water, and dermal contact with products containing triethylene glycol monobutyl ether.
- The substance2-(2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanolis an analogue of the test substance used in the study of Saavedra D, Arteaga M, Tena M,1997. In a case controlled study, exposure of pregnant females to methoxyethanol was associated with a specific phenotype of developmental facial abnormalities in offspring. Whilst exposure was not quantified, the description of the operations suggests that exposures, which took place in in the 1970’s was extensive and by multiple routes of exposure.
- The substance2-(2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol is an analogue of the test substance used in the study of Cook RR, Bodner KM, Kolesar RC et al,1982.
- The substance2-(2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol is an analogue of the test substance used in the study of Welch LS, Schrader SM, Turner TW et al1989. A study of shipyard painters exposed to methoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol showed clear evidence of oligospermia and azoospermia once confounding by smoking was controlled for. Many other sperm parameters showed evidence for effects but not to levels of statistical significance. The was significant evidence that exposure to methoxyethanol causes a small shift towards anaemia and a more substantial reduction in polymorphnuclear leukocyte counts in a small proportion of workers. The OR calculated for the oligospermia amongst non smokers was 1.85, but the 95% interval of 0.6-5.6 suggested caution is needed in interpreting risk from this figure.
- The substance2-(2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol is an analogue of the test substance used in the study of El-Zein RA, Abdel-Rahman SZ, Morris DL et al,2002.
Health surveillance data.
Two cases of dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) temporally related to the use of a cleaning solution containing 2 -butoxyethanol (2BE) have been reported. Analysis of the mixture showed the presence of 2 -butoxyethanol amongst a number of other materials. Patch testing was carried out with the individual chemicals at the same concentration than in the mixture, except for 2BE which was diluted to avoid irritation). There was no reported reaction to 2 -butoxyethanol or 2-(2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanolthe subject of this dossier) is expected to exhibit very similar toxicity in the patch tests whereas some of the other chemicals caused an adverse response.
- In the experiment, human abdominal whole skin (dermis plus epidermis) samples were assessed in vitro. Skin samples were mounted in a glass diffusion apparatus that exposed 2.54 sq. cm of epidermal area for chemical absorbtion determinations. Samples were tested for integrity (tritiated water diffusion through the skin prior to exposure), diffusion of glycol ethers through the skin, and epidermal damage after chemical exposures (increase in tritiated water diffusion following exposure). The three compounds crossed human epidermis at molar rates 170-330 times slower than the corresponding monoethylene glycol ethers. The skin damage ratio for TGME, however, was comparable to that of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, indicating that the diffusion barrier function of the skin was slightly diminished after 12 hours of exposure.
- In a suicide attempt, a 50-year woman ingested 250-500 ml of a window cleaner containing 12 % of 2 -butoxyethanol, corresponding to about 0.5 to 1 g/kg bw. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was comatose. Biochemically she presented with metabolic acidosis, hypokalaemia, a rise in serum creatinine level and a markedly increased urinary excretion of oxalate crystals. The patient made a full recovery after 7 days. Acute exposure of a human to 0.5-1g/kg of 2-butoxyethanol cause marked but fully reversible effects.
- A case history report described a 19 year old male who ingested between 2 -4.2g/kg of 2 -butoxyethanol in the form of a commercial degreaser preparation which also contained other chemicals such as monoethanolamine and potassium hydroxide. The patient exhibited neurotoxicity and acidosis and at one stage was considered critically ill. There was no evidence of renal or hepatic toxicity though. Some residual neurological deficits persisted after recovery from this severe intoxication but it was difficult to attribute this entirely to this substance as the patient was already on strong medication for depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder secondary to child abuse.
-A case report of a deliberate ingestion of a mixture containing 10-30 % of 2 -butoxyethanol was reported. A 51-year-old woman ingested 8 ounces of this mixture (corresponding to an estimate dose of 24-72g of EGBE and range of 0.4 – 1.2 g/kg bw) in a suicide attempt. Clinical symptoms were metabolic acidosis and mental status depression. The patient was treated with ethanol therapy and recovered without apparent sequelae. No signs of hematotoxicity were noticed.
-In an attempted suicide, a 23-year-old woman had ingested about 500 ml of a mixture containing 2 -butoxyethanol (2BE) (12.7 %) and of ethanol (3.2 %) (about 57 g of 2BE corresponding to a dose of about 1g/kg bw). Upon admission, the subject was in a comatose state, had breathing difficulties was in metabolic acidosis and had a 2BE blood concentration of EGBE 432 mg/l which fell to 302mg/l. 2 hr after admission. A fall in haemoglobin from 11.9 g/dl on admission to 8.9 g/dl on the second day, together with the appearance of haematuria was noticed. The half-life of 2BE in the blood was 210 min. Butoxyacetic acid concentration in the urine peaked 4 hr after dialysis treatment was initiated.
-A case study reported the findings from an 18 year old male who ingested on two separate occasions 360 -480mls of a glass cleaner containing 22% 2 -butoxyethanol. Approximately 10hrs after the first ingestion the patient developed severe CNS depression, metabolic acidosis, haematuria and mild elevation of hepatic enzymes. The second ingestion was approximately 10 days after discharge. Following this exposure, the patient failed to show the delayed severe CNS depression or profound metabolic acidosis. Clinically significant hemolytic anaemia, oxaluria, ethylene glycol production or renal problems were not present. The patient recovered without sequelae on both occasions.
-An examination of children poisoning looked at 24 cases over two years where 2 -butoxyethanol (2BE) ingestion occured through the accidental consumption of glass cleaners. The ingested cleaners contained 2BE in concentrations ranging from 0.5 % to 9.9 %. The child cases ranged from 7 months to 9 years old. The quantities ranged from 5 to 300 mL - 24 children. All the cases were asymptomatic on presentaion. In most cases treatment was by simple dilution and in only two was gastric lavage used. The authors concluded that a pediatric oral exposure to a dose of 1ml of 2BE did not require aggressive intervention.
-A study using human volunteers showed that methoxyethanol is readily absorbed through the skin both as a vapour and liquid. Dermal uptake of vapour was estimated to account for up to 55% of total uptake. Dermal uptake of liquid is sufficiently great (2.9mg/cm2/hr) that exposure of even a relatively small area of skin for a short period of time (eg palm of hand for 15 mins) is likely to outweigh exposure by inhalation over a whole day.
- Repeat dermal contact to methoxyethanol by two male workers caused adverse but reversible changes to blood parameters and toxic encephalopathy.