Registration Dossier

Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
No data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No guideline. Well conducted and documented study.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute contact test: the larvae are immersed in aqueous solutions of the test substance for 30 sec and mortality is assessed at 4h and finally at 24h.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
contact
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
No sampling (no analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of test material application: whole body exposure to aqueous solution of the substance (immersion for 30 sec)
- Body part: whole body
- Controls: immersed in dilution water
Test organisms (species):
other: Epiphyas postvittana
Animal group:
other: Lepidoptera
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM)
- Source: laboratory culture maintained since 1993, using the rearing procedure of Singh et al. (Singh, P., Calre, G.K., Ashby, M.D., 1985. Epihyas postvittana, in: "Handbook of Insect rearing II", Singh, P., Moore, R.F. (Eds.), Elsevier, New-York: 271-283).
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): Larvae: 3rd (12 d) and 5th instar (21 d)

Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Post exposure observation period:
No post-exposure
Test temperature:
20 +/- 2°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
Not applicable
Humidity:
No data
Photoperiod and lighting:
Natural lighting and photoperiod
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage (material, size): 400 mm diameter fine wire mesh spherical cages, suspended in a 500-mL beaker of well-agitated emulsion for 30 sec, then larvae removed and placed into rearing media within a sealed plastic container
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per per control: 4


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality at 4h and 24 h


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- 3rd instar: 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5 mL/L
- 5th instar: 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5, 10 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations:
3rd instar: 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5 mL/L
5th instar: 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mL/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.47 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Instar III
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 0.36-0.58
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
other: LC90
Effect conc.:
0.97 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Instar III
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 0.76-1.57
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.27 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Instar V
Remarks on result:
other: 2.64-3.94
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
other: LC90
Effect conc.:
11.68 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Instar V
Remarks on result:
other: 8.92-17.5
Details on results:
See table 1
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
See table 1

Table 1. Dose-mortality response (24 h exposure) ofEpiphyas postvittanato dipping in C15 Ampol CPD

 

Instar

Sample (n)

Slope (± SEM)

LC50(mL.L-1)

(95% CL)

LC90(mL.L-1)

(95% CL)

III

240

4.10 (± 0.55)

0.47 (0.36 - 0.58)

0.97 (0.76 - 1.57)

V

207

2.98 (± 0.37)

3.27 (2.64 - 3.94)

11.68 (8.92 - 17.5)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The LC50 of C15 Ampol CPD for Epiphyas postvittana is 0.47 mL/L (i.e. 0.37 g/L)
Executive summary:

Lightbrown apple moth (Epihyas postvittana - LBMA) larvae (III and V instars) were exposed to C15 Ampol CPD (C15 alkane) by short immersion (30sec) into an aqueous emulsion of the substance. Mortality was assessed after 4h and 24 h.

The LC50 of C15 Ampol CPD for LBMA was found to be 0.47 mL/L ( i.e. 0.37 g/L).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
No data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No guideline. Well conducted and documented study.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute contact test: the larvae are immersed in aqueous solutions of the test substance for 30 sec and mortality is assessed at 4h and finally at 24h.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
contact
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
No sampling (no analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of test material application: whole body exposure to aqueous solution of the substance (immersion for 30 sec)
- Body part: whole body
- Controls: immersed in dilution water
Test organisms (species):
other: Epiphyas postvittana
Animal group:
other: Lepidoptera
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM)
- Source: laboratory culture maintained since 1993, using the rearing procedure of Singh et al. (Singh, P., Calre, G.K., Ashby, M.D., 1985. Epihyas postvittana, in: "Handbook of Insect rearing II", Singh, P., Moore, R.F. (Eds.), Elsevier, New-York: 271-283).
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): Larvae: 3rd instar (12 d)

Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Post exposure observation period:
No post-exposure
Test temperature:
20 +/- 2°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
Not applicable
Humidity:
No data
Photoperiod and lighting:
Natural lighting and photoperiod
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage (material, size): 400 mm diameter fine wire mesh spherical cages, suspended in a 500-mL beaker of well-agitated emulsion for 30 sec, then larvae removed and placed into rearing media within a sealed plastic container
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per per control: 4


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality at 4h and 24 h


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
1.0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 mL/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 1.0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 mL/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
12.41 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 8.45-22.8
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
other: LC90
Effect conc.:
113.9 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 49.6-618.4
Details on results:
See table 1
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
See table 1

Table 1. Dose-mortality response (24 h exposure) of Epiphyas postvittana to dipping in C23 Ampol DC-Tron NR

 

Instar

Sample (n)

Slope (± SEM)

LC50(mL.L-1)

(95% CL)

LC90(mL.L-1)

(95% CL)

III

240

1.33 (± 0.23)

12.41 (8.45 - 22.28)

113.9 (49.6 - 618.4)

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The LC50 of C23 Ampol DC-Tron NR for Epiphyas postvittana is 12.41 mL/L (i.e. 10.45 g/L)
Executive summary:

Lightbrown apple moth (Epihyas postvittana - LBMA) larvae (III instars) were exposed to C23 Ampol DC-Tron NR (70% paraffins; 28% naphthenics; 2% aromatics) by short immersion (30sec) into an aqueous emulsion of the substance. Mortality was assessed after 4h and 24 h.

The LC50 of C15 Ampol CPD for LBMA was found to be 12.41 ml/l ( i.e. 10.45 g/L).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
No data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No guideline. Well conducted and documented study.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute contact test: the larvae are installed on fruits ("domicile-protected") and the fruits are then immersed in aqueous solutions of the test substance for 30 sec. Mortality is assessed at 4h and finally at 24h.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
contact
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
No sampling (no analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of test material application: whole body exposure to aqueous solution of the substance (immersion for 30 sec)
- Body part: whole body
- Controls: immersed in dilution water
Test organisms (species):
other: Epiphyas postvittana
Animal group:
other: Lepidoptera
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM)
- Source: laboratory culture maintained since 1993, using the rearing procedure of Singh et al. (Singh, P., Calre, G.K., Ashby, M.D., 1985. Epihyas postvittana, in: "Handbook of Insect rearing II", Singh, P., Moore, R.F. (Eds.), Elsevier, New-York: 271-283).
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): Larvae: 3rd instar (12 d)
Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Post exposure observation period:
No post-exposure
Test temperature:
20 +/- 2°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
Not applicable
Humidity:
No data
Photoperiod and lighting:
Natural lighting and photoperiod
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Fresh pesticide- and insect-free navel oranges with intact calyxes were used to host the larvae. Two larvae were placed on opposite sides of each calyx. A 15-mm diameter plastic phial was then inverted over each calyx, hold in position by a rubber band.
- After establishment of the larvae (24 to 48 h) the oranges were dipped in a 500-mL beaker of well-agitated emulsion for 30 sec, then larvae removed and placed into rearing media within a sealed plastic container
- No. of organisms per treatment: 20 (groups of 10 oranges)
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per per control: 4


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality at 4h and 24 h


TEST CONCENTRATIONS 1.0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 mL/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 1.0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 mL/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.31 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 2.69-3.92
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
other: LC90
Effect conc.:
8.8 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 7.26-11.33
Details on results:
See table 1
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
See table 1

Table 1. Dose-mortality response (24 h exposure) of Epiphyas postvittana to dipping in C15 Ampol CPD

 

Sample (n)

Slope (± SEM)

LC50(mL.L-1)

(95% CL)

LC90(mL.L-1)

(95% CL)

240

3.01 (± 0.33)

3.31 (2.69 - 3.92)

8.80 (7.26 - 11.33)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The LC50 of C15 Ampol CPD for Epiphyas postvittana is 3.31 mL/L (i.e. 2.6 g/L)
Executive summary:

Lightbrown apple moth (Epihyas postvittana - LBMA) larvae (III instars) were installed under navel orange calyxes ("domicile-protected" larvae) and then exposed to C15 Ampol CPD (C15 alkane) by short immersion (30sec) into an aqueous emulsion of the substance. Mortality was assessed after 4h and 24 h.

The LC50 of C15 Ampol CPD for "domicile-protected" LBMA larvae was found to be 3.31 mL/L ( i.e. 2.60 g/L).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
No data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No guideline. Well conducted and documented study.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 214 (Honeybees, Acute Contact Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Other species. No reference substance. 3 concentrations instead of 5.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Same principle as the guideline
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
contact
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
No sampling (no analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of test material application: single topical dose
- Body part: whole body
- Volume of test solution applied: 4mL applied at 103 kPa (settling time: 15 sec)
- Controls: Sprayed with water
- No vehicle
Test organisms (species):
other: Epiphyas postvittana
Animal group:
other: Lepidoptera
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM)
- Source: laboratory culture maintained since 1993, using the rearing procedure of Singh et al. (Singh, P., Calre, G.K., Ashby, M.D., 1985. Epihyas postvittana, in: "Handbook of Insect rearing II", Singh, P., Moore, R.F. (Eds.), Elsevier, New-York: 271-283).
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): newly eclosed adults

Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No post-exposure
Test temperature:
20 +/- 3°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
Not applicable
Humidity:
55 +/- 5 %
Photoperiod and lighting:
Natural lighting and photoperiod
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage (material, size): small plastic cages (separate sexes)
- Details of fecundity chambers: separate plastic cups
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 40 per sex
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 1
- No. of replicates per per control / vehicle control: 1


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality at 24 h; number of eggs per female at 96h; percentage hatch



TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: none
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 10, 25, 50 mL/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 50 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
other: Effect concentration
Effect conc.:
> 50 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
number of eggs per female
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
other: Effect concentration
Effect conc.:
50 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
egg hatch
Remarks on result:
other: Egg hatch reduced by about 75%
Details on results:
See table 1
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
See table 1

Table 1. Fecundity and fertility of adult Epihyas posvittana sprayed with 50 mL.L-1of C15 Ampol CPD

 

Treated pairs

Number of eggs per female (± SEM)*

Number of egg masses per female (± SEM)*

Eggs hached (%)

 (± SEM)**

Control male /

Control female

277.4 (± 0.5)

11.8 (± 0.97)

66.3 (± 17.3)

Treated male /

Control female

147.2 (± 52.3)

14.6 (± 2.82)

17.4 (±17.4

Control male /

Treated female

147.2 (±54.5)

14.2 (± 1.74)

10.6 (±10.6)

*: Means of at least 5 replicates. Means are not significanly different according to one way analysis of variance of the data (p>0.05).

**: Means of are significanly different form control/control according to one-way analysis of variance of arcsin square root-transformed percentage data (p>0.05).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
C15 Ampol CPD sprayed onto adult moth has no effect on survival up to 50 mL/L. The adults sprayed with 50 L/L (highest dose) produce the same number of eggs and egg masses as the control. However, treatment of adults with 50 mL/L reduces the percentage of egg hatched.
Executive summary:

Lightbrown apple moth (Epihyas postvittana - LBMA) adults were exposed to C15 Ampol CPD (C15 alkane) by spray (4 mL at 103 kPa, settling time: 15 sec) of an aqueous emulsion of the substance. The tested concentrations were 10, 25 and 50 mL/L. Mortality was assessed after 24 h. The moths were then paired in three combinations (control male/control female; control male/treated female; treated male / control female) and the fertility and fecundity were analysed throgh the number of eggs produced and hatchability.

C15 Ampol CPD sprayed onto adult moth has no effect on survival up to 50 mL/L. The adults sprayed with 50 ml/l (highest dose) produce the same number of eggs and egg masses as the control. However, treatment of adults with 50 ml/l reduces the percentage of egg hatched.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
other:
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
No data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No guideline. Well conducted and documented study.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute contact test: the larvae are immersed in aqueous solutions of the test substance for 30 sec and mortality is assessed at 24h and then every 4 to 7 days until all larvae have died or emerged from pupae as adults.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
contact
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
No sampling (no analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of test material application: whole body exposure to aqueous solution of the substance (immersion for 30 sec)
- Body part: whole body
- Controls: immersed in dilution water
Test organisms (species):
other: Epiphyas postvittana
Animal group:
other: Lepidoptera
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM)
- Source: laboratory culture maintained since 1993, using the rearing procedure of Singh et al. (Singh, P., Calre, G.K., Ashby, M.D., 1985. Epihyas postvittana, in: "Handbook of Insect rearing II", Singh, P., Moore, R.F. (Eds.), Elsevier, New-York: 271-283).
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): Larvae: 3rd instar (12 d)

Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Remarks:
until all larvae had either died or emerged from pupae as adults
Post exposure observation period:
No post-exposure
Test temperature:
20 +/- 2°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
Not applicable
Humidity:
No data
Photoperiod and lighting:
Natural lighting and photoperiod
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage (material, size): 400 mm diameter fine wire mesh spherical cages, suspended in a 500-mL beaker of well-agitated emulsion for 30 sec, then larvae removed and placed into rearing media within a sealed plastic container
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 15 immersed in substance emulsion, then after 24 h the 10 most active larvae were kept and placed in larval rearing media.
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per per control: 4


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality every 4 to 7 days


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
1.0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 mL/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0.1 ml/l
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
other: Effect concentration
Effect conc.:
> 0.1 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
from instar III to adult emergence
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
other: Effect concentration
Effect conc.:
> 0.1 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
development
Remarks:
from instar II to adult emergence
Details on results:
See table 1
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
See table 1

Table 1. Post 24-h mortality and development of third-instar Epiphyas postvittana dipped at 0.1 mL.L-1in C15 Ampol CPD and held at 20°C for 14 days

 

Treatment

Mortality (± SEM)

Emergence (± SEM)

Control

0.25 (± 0.25)

9.25 (± 0.25)

Treated

1.00 (± 0.41)

8.50 (± 0.65)

(Mean of four replicates of 10 larvae. No significant difference between control and treated according to one-way analysis of variance, p>0.05))

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
C15 Ampol CPD (100% paraffins) for Epiphyas postvittana at 0.1 mL/L (i.e. 0.08 g/L) has no long-term effect on mortality and development of Epiphyas postvittana
Executive summary:

Lightbrown apple moth (Epihyas postvittana - LBMA) larvae (III instars) were exposed to C15 Ampol CPD (100% paraffins) by short immersion (30sec) into an aqueous emulsion of the substance (0.1 mL/L, i.e., 0.08 g/L). Mortality and development were assessed every four to seven day until all the larvae had either died or emmerged as adults.

There were no significant effects on mortality or development of III instar larvae cage-dipped in 0.1 mL/L emulsion of C15 Ampol CPD.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
No data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No guideline. Well conducted and documented study.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute contact test: the larvae are immersed in aqueous solutions of the test substance for 30 sec and mortality is assessed at 24h and then every 4 to 7 days until all larvae have died or emerged from pupae as adults.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
contact
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No test surrogate material
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
No sampling (no analytical monitoring)
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of test material application: whole body exposure to aqueous solution of the substance (immersion for 30 sec)
- Body part: whole body
- Controls: immersed in dilution water
Test organisms (species):
other: Epiphyas postvittana
Animal group:
other: Lepidoptera
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM)
- Source: laboratory culture maintained since 1993, using the rearing procedure of Singh et al. (Singh, P., Calre, G.K., Ashby, M.D., 1985. Epihyas postvittana, in: "Handbook of Insect rearing II", Singh, P., Moore, R.F. (Eds.), Elsevier, New-York: 271-283).
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): Larvae: 3rd instar (12 d)

Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Remarks:
until all larvae had either died or emerged from pupae as adults
Post exposure observation period:
No post-exposure
Test temperature:
20 +/- 2°C
pH (if soil or dung study):
Not applicable
Humidity:
No data
Photoperiod and lighting:
Natural lighting and photoperiod
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage (material, size): 400 mm diameter fine wire mesh spherical cages, suspended in a 500-ml beaker of well-agitated emulsion for 30 sec, then larvae removed and placed into rearing media within a sealed plastic container
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 15 immersed in substance emulsion, then after 24 h the 10 most active larvae were kept and placed in larval rearing media.
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per per control: 4


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality every 4 to 7 days


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
1.0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 mL/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0.1 mL/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
other: Effect concentration
Effect conc.:
> 0.1 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
from instar III to adult emergence
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
other: Effect concentration
Effect conc.:
> 0.1 other: mL/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
development
Remarks:
from instar II to adult emergence
Details on results:
See table 1
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
See table 1

Table 1. Post 24-h mortality and development of third-instar Epiphyas postvittana dipped at 0.1 mL.L-1in C23 Ampol DC-Tron NR and held at 20°C for 14 days

 

Treatment

Mortality (± SEM)

Emergence (± SEM)

Control

0.25 (± 0.25)

9.25 (± 0.25)

Treated

1.50 (± 0.29)

8.25 (± 0.25)

(Mean of four replicates of 10 larvae. No significant difference between control and treated according to one-way analysis of variance, p>0.05))

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
C23 Ampol DC-Tron NR for Epiphyas postvittana at 0.1 ml/l (i.e. 0.08 g/l) has no long-term effect on mortality and development of Epiphyas postvittana
Executive summary:

Lightbrown apple moth (Epihyas postvittana - LBMA) larvae (III instars) were exposed to C23 Ampol DC-Tron NR (70% paraffins; 28% naphthenics; 2% aromatics) by short immersion (30sec) into an aqueous emulsion of the substance (0.1 mL/L, i.e., 0.08 g/L). Mortality and development were assessed every four to seven day until all the larvae had either died or emmerged as adults.

There were no significant effects on mortality or development of III instar larvae cage-dipped in 0.1 mL/L emulsion of C23 Ampol DC-Tron NR.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
other:

Description of key information

No NOEC neither LC50 could be derived from the experimental data available. The Petrorisk model was used for the risk assessment;

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

According to Chapter R.7c (Endpoint specific guidance) of ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, in the case of readily biodegradable substances which are not directly applied to soil it is generally assumed that the substance will not enter the terrestrial environment and as such there is no need for testing of soil dwelling arthropods. According to the data provided in the dossier, C14-20 Aliphatics (≤2% aromatic) are readily biodegradable. Therefore, testing on soil dwelling arthropods is not required.

 

Moreover, some results are presented as supporting studies to demonstrate the need for high concentrations of hydrocarbons to obtain toxicity in terrestrial arthropods. Taverner et al. (1999) investigated the effects of two paraffin mixtures, C15 Ampol CPD (100% C15 alkanes) and C23 Ampol DC Tron NR (70% paraffins, 28% naphthenics, 2% aromatics), on the lepidopteran pest Epiphyas postvittana. Hydrocarbons were directly applied on the organisms and 24h-LC50 varied from 0.47 ml/L (i.e. approximately 375 mg/L) for the larval stage Instar III to more than 50 ml/L (i.e. 37.5 g/L) for the adults. The 14-day NOEC for instar III was found to be 0.1 ml/L (i.e. approximately 80 mg/L).