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Toxicological information

Dermal absorption

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
dermal absorption in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2000
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Acceptable,study with sufficient documentation which meets basic scientific principles and contains enough detail to be able to judge the results reliable as a contribution to the understanding of the dermal absorption characteristics of this substance. Total recovery of material rather low.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Fate of ethanol applied topically to the skin
Author:
Pendlington RU, Whittle E, Robinson JA, Howes D
Year:
2001
Bibliographic source:
Food Chem Toxicol, 39, 169-74

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 428 (Skin Absorption: In Vitro Method)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
, no mention of integrity testing. Temperature and dose level slightly above recommended limits.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): ethanol
- Analytical purity: 'highest purity available'
- Radiochemical purity (if radiolabelling): no data
- Specific activity (if radiolabelling): 8mCi/mmol
Radiolabelling:
yes

Test animals

Species:
pig
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
female

Administration / exposure

Details on in vitro test system (if applicable):
SKIN PREPARATION
- Source of skin: Pig, 10 week old, female
- Type of skin: dorsal
- Preparative technique: Skin clipped, sc fat and muscle removed and then frozen at -70C until thawed immediately before use.
- Thickness of skin (in mm): no data
- Membrane integrity check: no data
- Storage conditions: -70C

PRINCIPLES OF ASSAY
- Diffusion cell: Bronaugh flow through cells
- Receptor fluid: Phosphate buffered saline with 5% bovine newborne calf serum and anti-biotics
- Solubility of test substance in receptor fluid: infinite
- Flow-through system:
- Test temperature: 37C
- Occlusion: half of cells occluded (double layer of parafilm) and microscope slide coverslip, half un-occluded
- Reference substance(s):
- Other: discs of 1.7cm skin used

Results and discussion

Total recovery:
- Total recovery:
- Recovery of applied dose acceptable: Occluded 40%, un-occluded 2.2%. Evaporation clearly explains the latter and may also account for the former being lower than ideal. The authors proposed that this was lost in the atmosphere of the cells, particularly since the total amount of radioactivity on the parafilm was higher than anywhere else except the receptor fluid. The fact that the outer skin digests were always higher than the inner skin digests also suggests loss through the cell flanges.
- Results adjusted for incomplete recovery of the applied dose: no
Percutaneous absorptionopen allclose all
Dose:
10mg/cm2
Parameter:
percentage
Absorption:
ca. 21 %
Remarks on result:
other: 24 hours
Remarks:
under occlusive conditions
Dose:
10mg/cm2
Parameter:
percentage
Absorption:
ca. 1 %
Remarks on result:
other: 24 hours
Remarks:
under non-occlusive conditions

Any other information on results incl. tables

The amount penetrating was greater in the occluded than the unoccluded cells. The maximum flux rate was reached within 1 hour.

   Occluded cells  Un-occluded cells
 Dose (mg)  3.93  3.93
 Dose (mg/cm2)  10.34  10.34
 Total penetrating to receptor fluid (%)  21.17  0.97
 Total penetrating to receptor fluid in 24hrs (mg/cm2)  2.19  0.1

Note that if the total penetrating (in mg/cm2) is corrected for the recovered quantitities, the total penetrating would become 5.5 and 4.5mg/cm2 respectively, which suggests that occlusion state does not affect actual penetration rate significantly and that the total penetration is actually dependent on whether evaporation occurs or not..

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Systemic doses of ethanol via skin absorption under practical conditions will be very low.
Executive summary:

In a study to assess the skin penetration potential of ethanol, an in vitro study was carried out using excised pig skin and radiolabelled ethanol. Ethanol penetration was greater under occlusion conditions than non-occlusive conditions, as might be expected. Absorption rates were around 21% and 1% of applied doses respectively.