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Extract from CSR: Section 9.15: Measurements of the concentration of D6 in the environment

Refer to CSR for references

The following is a summary of environmental monitoring data on D6, including studies from 2002 to 2014. The monitoring results are summarised in Table 9.15.1 (sediment), Table 9.15.2 (air and surface water) and Table 9.15.3 (biota) below. The studies include some remote locations, as well as locations close to urban populations.

D6 is present as an impurity and widely used in commercial products (e.g., personal care products). D6 is highly volatile and of low solubility in water. The main route of entry into the aquatic environment is via wastewater treatment plant effluents. D6 does volatilise to air, but its properties dictate low potential for back-deposition to land or water.

Analytical measurement of trace levels of D6 in environmental samples is difficult due to its physical properties and uses, which can inadvertently lead to significant sample contamination. D6 is used in personal care products. Environmental samples can become compromised during all stages of field and laboratory work including sample collection, processing, extraction, and analysis. Since about 2008, environmental monitoring programs have tended to incorporate the use of rigorous protocols strictly prohibiting the use of personal care products by all field and laboratory personnel involved, as well as avoiding equipment containing silicone-based materials. This has led to lower analytical backgrounds, reduced potential for contamination, and thus greater confidence in the environmental monitoring results.

However, in general, newer studies which do use specific prohibition of personal care products during collection, processing, or analysis of samples, are not representative of remote locations (e.g. Lake Pepin (Dow Corning Corporation, 2009d, Dow Corning Corporation 2011a), Oslofjord (Dow Corning Corporation, 2010a), Lake Ontario (Dow Corning Corporation 2011b, Dow Corning Corporation 2012)).

The data available on environmental concentrations that could be considered as remote locations is discussed further now.

The occurrence of D6 has been reported in biota from the arctic regions (e.g., Kajet al., 2005; TemaNord 2005). However, the observed concentrations away from population centres were typically low,and it is noted that protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of personal care products during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

An early study at a remote location that perhaps gave rigorousattention to avoiding background contamination took place in 2008 to 2009 (Dow Corning Corporation, 2010b). In cooperation with the Norwegian Polar Institute and Akvaplan-niva, scientists from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) collected environmental samples from Svalbard, Norway and the west coast of Sweden. Samples were divided and sent to three laboratories for analysis (NILU, Evonik in Germany, and Dow Corning in Michigan, USA). Samples were collected, processed, and analysed using strict protocols that prohibited the use of personal care products by all field and laboratory personnel.

As reported byDow Corning Corporation(2010b), the sampling campaign occurred at three locations in Svalbard, Norway. Longyearbyen (Adventfjorden) has a permanent population of approximately 2500 and is a popular destination for tourists and cruise ships. Ny Ålesund (Kongsfjorden) has a permanent population of approximately 150 and is also a popular stop for cruise ships. Liefdefjorden does not have any permanent settlements on it but is also frequently visited by cruise ships. In remote monitoring, control of background contamination continues to be a significant challenge when collecting and analysing for D6 in environmental samples, especially when approaching the detection limit of the method. Despite this, overall the levels of D6 in sediment samples were all less than detection in all three locations, and levels in biota samples were all low to non-detected.

Evensetet al.(2009) also took appropriate controls during collection/processing/analysis of samples, and also sampled at Liefdefjorden and Kongsfjorden, as well as Billefjorden and Moffen. Similar results were found. Sediment samples were all less than detection. Biota samples were all low to non-detected.

Table 9.15.1. Measured concentrations of D6 in sediment

Description of samples

Sampling year

N (number of sampling locations)

D6

Comment

Reference

Sediment

 

 

(ng/g dw)

 

 

Norway, Sweden background locations

2004

7

all <MDL

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

TemaNord (2005)

 

Six countries, urban and industrial areas

2004, 2005

19

n=13, <MDL

n=4, 0.89 to 10

n=2, 25 to 170

Sweden, background locations

2004, 2005

3

all <MDL

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Kaj et al. (2005)

Sweden, Industrial areas, chemical plants, regional locations

2004, 2005

24

n=22, <MDL

n=2, 51 to 196

Norway, Oslofjord

2006

6

n=1, <17

n=5, 22 to 100

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Schlabach (2007)

Norway, Barents Sea

2007

11

all <MDL

 

Secondary citation, protocols not available

Bakke et al. (2008)

Norway, Svalbard (Liefdefjorden, Kongsfjorden)

2008

4

all <MDL

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Evenset et al. (2009)

Canada, Lake Opeongo, Ontario

2007

9

all <LOD

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2010a)

Canada, Lake Ontario

2007

6

n=5, <LOD

n=1, 197.9

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2007)

Canada, Lake Ontario

2011

5

3.57 to 23.65 

[ng/g wet weight]

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2011)

Canada, Lake Ontario

2012

5

4.18 to 30.3  

[ng/g wet weight]

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2012)

USA, Lake Pepin, Minnesota

2006

11

<MDL to 78.7

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2010c)

USA, Lake Pepin, Minnesota

2008

30

mean 6.5 [ng/g wet weight]

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2009)

USA, Lake Pepin

2011

12

3.07 to 4.03 

[ng/g wet weight]

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2015a)

Norway, Inner Oslofjord

2008

 

8

7

42.5 to 93.5

42.3 to 111

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2010a)

Norway, Outer Oslofjord

2008

 

6

5

5.17 to 9.78

6.94 to 16.7

Norway, Svalbard (Adventfjorden, Kongsfjorden)

2009

10

all <MDL

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation(2010b)

Japan, Inner Tokyo Bay

2012

20

n=13 1.4 to 10

n=7

11 to 20 [ng/g wet weight]

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

ECCC (2013)

Japan, Inner Tokyo Bay

2013

20

n=13

2.0 to 10

n=7

11 to 18 [ng/g wet weight]

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

ECCC (2014)

  

USA, Lake Pepin, Minnesota

2012   18   

3.26 to 4.05 

[ng/g wet weight]

 

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

 
  

Dow Corning Corporation (2015b)

 


 

Table 9.15.2. Measured concentrations of D6 in air and surface water

Description of samples

Sampling year

N (number of sampling locations)

D6

Comment

Reference

Air

Sweden background locations

2004, 2005

3

<12 to 77 ng/m3

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Kaj et al. (2005)

 

Sweden, Industrial areas, chemical plants, regional locations

2004, 2005

8

< 12 to 42 ng/m3

Sweden, background locations

2004, 2005

24

20 to 2100 ng/m3

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

TemaNord (2005)

Sweden, background (rural) location

2009

34

NA

One site sampled repeatedly over 4 month period, in duplicate. Special precaution used during sample collection and analysis. Method was validated and QC was used to monitor contamination/breakthrough.

Kierkegaard and McLachlan (2009)

Surface water

Norway – Oslofjord

2006

4

all <20 ng/L

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Schlabach (2007)

Sweden – Industrial areas, chemical plants

2004, 2005

4

all <40 ng/L

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Kaj et al. (2005)

Scandinavia – six countries, freshwater and marine

2004, 2005

13

all <MDL (varying MDL)

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

TemaNord (2005)

Table 9.15.3. Measured concentrations of D6 in biota

Description of samples

Sampling year

N (number of sampling locations)

D6

Comment

Reference

Biota

 

 

(ng/g ww)

 

 

Six countries::

fish livers,

seal blubber,

seabird eggs

2002, 2004

21 (fish)

n=19, <LOQ

n=2, 5.2 to 74

 

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

TemaNord (2005)

7 (seal)

all <LOQ

 

17 (eggs)

all <LOD

Sweden, Background locations

2004, 2005

3

all <5

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Kaj et al. (2005)

Sweden,, industrial areas, chemical plants, regional locations – fish muscle tissue

16

all <5

Norway, Oslofjord – fish livers, stomach contents, mussels

2004, 2006

9 (fish samples)

0.9 to 151.5

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Schlabach (2007)

3 (mussels)

1.3 to 1.8

Canada, Lake Opeongo, Ontario (zooplankton)

2007

3

all<LOD

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2010d)

USA, Lake Pepin, Minnesota (benthos)

2008

7

mean 23.8

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2009)

Norway, Inner Oslofjord (benthos)

2008

14

4

0.40 to 20

<MDL to 6.7

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2010a)

Norway, Outer Oslofjord (benthos)

2008

12

6

<MDL to 14

<MDL to 7.1

Norway, Inner Oslofjord (fish)

2008

33

35

1.80 to 43

<MDL to 42

Norway, Outer Oslofjord (fish)

2008

24

27

0.71 to 9.7

<MDL to 11

Norway, Svalbard – fish livers, whole fish

1. Liefdefjorden 2. Kongsfjorden

3.Billefjorden

4. Moffen

2008

16

1. n=2 polar cod fish liver 10.7

2. n=5 atlantic cod fish liver <MDL (varying MDL)

3. n=4 polar cod fish liver <MDL

4. n=5 polar cod whole fish, 2.2-3.8

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Evenset et al. (2009)

Norway, Svalbard -

Kittiwake, Eider

1. Liefdefjorden 2. Kongsfjorden

 

2008

14

1. n=4 Kittiwake in <MDL

2. n=5 Kittiwake <MDL

n=5 Eider <MDL

Norway, Svalbard fish livers, 2 species:

1. Liefdefjorden,

2. Kongsfjorden

3. Adventfjorden

2009

1. 18

2. 19

3. 27

1. n=13, <MDL

n=5, 0.98 to 3.60

2. n=19, 1.38 to 15.6

3. n=1, <MDL

n=26, 1.03 to 4.9

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation(2010b)

Norway, Sweden

Herring gull, Glaucous gull, Black Guillemot liver and tissue

2008

38

n=23, <MDL

n=15, 1.35 to 20.5

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation(2010b)

Kittiwake

Black Guillemot blood

33

all <MDL

Japan, Inner Tokyo Bay

Japanese Sea Bass, White Croaker, Japanese Scaled Sardine, Red Barracuda, Japanese Anchovy

2012

40

<MDL to 12

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

ECCC (2013)

Japan, Inner Tokyo Bay

Japanese Sea Bass, White Croaker, Japanese Scaled Sardine, Red Barracuda, Japanese Anchovy

2013

30

1.5 to 7.4

Protocols did not specifically prohibit the use of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

ECCC (2014)

USA, Lake Pepin

Mayfly larvae

Gizzard Shad

Sauger

2011

36

0.84 to 1.55 (re-analysis)

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2015a)

Canada, Lake Ontario

Mysid shrimp

Round goby

Rainbow smelt

Alewife

Lake trout

2011

49

1.89 to 10.69

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2011)

Canada, Lake Ontario

Mysid shrimp

Round goby

Rainbow smelt

Alewife

Lake trout

2012

47

1.23 to 11.9

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2012)

  

USA, Lake Pepin

Mayfly larvae

Gizzard Shad

Sauger

Walleye

 2012 40    0.43 - 1.77 (MDL = 1.1)   

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

  

Dow Corning Corporation (2015b)

 

REFERENCES:

Bakke T, Boitsov S, Brevik EM, Gabrielsen GW, Green N, Helgason LB, Klungsøyr, Leknes H, Miljeteig C, Måge A, Rolfsnes BE, Savinova T, Schlabach M, Skaare BB and Valdersnes S (2008).Mapping selected organic contaminants in the Barents Sea 2007. SPFO-report:1021/2008, Norwegian Pollution Control Authority.

Dow Corning Corporation (2007) Cyclic Methylsiloxane (cVMS) Materials in Surface Sediments and Cores for Lake Ontario. Final Report to Centre Europeen des Silicones (CES), Dow Corning Corporation Study No.10724-108.

Dow Corning Corporation (2009) Trophic dilution of cyclic volatile methylsiloxane (cVMS) materials in a temperate freshwater lake. Report of the Dow Corning Corporation. Report #2009-I0000-60988.HES Study No. 10771-108.

Dow Corning Corporation. (2010a). Degradation of Octamethyltrisiloxane (L3) in Soils. Testing laboratory: Dow Corning Corporation, Health and Environmental Sciences (HES), 2200 W. Salzburg Road, Auburn, MI 48611. Report no.: 11297-102. Owner company: SEHSC. Report date: 2010-06-10.

Dow Corning Corporation (2010b). A Collaborative Assessment of Cyclic Volatile Methylsiloxanes (D4, D5, D6) Concentrations in the Norwegian Environment. Dow Corning Corporation, HES Study No. 11061-108, Auburn, MI, USA

Dow Corning Corporation 2010c. Deposition of Cyclic Volatile Methylsiloxane (cVMS) Materials to Sediment in a Temperate Freshwater Lake: A Historical Perspective. Dow Corning Corporation, HES Study No. 10725-108, Auburn, MI, USA

Dow Corning Corporation 2010d. Preliminary Assessment of Cyclic Volatile Methylsiloxane (cVMS) Materials in Surface Sediments, Cores, Zooplankton, and Fish of Lake Opeongo, Ontario, Canada. Dow Corning Corporation, HES Study No. 10806-108, Auburn, MI, USA

Dow Corning Corporation (2011). Long-Term Research Monitoring of Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in Lake Ontario (2011). Dow Corning Corporation, HES Study No. 11937-108, Auburn, MI, USA. Report date: 21 April 2014.

Dow Corning Corporation (2012). Long-Term Research Monitoring of Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in Lake Ontario (2012). Dow Corning Corporation, HES Study No. 12268-108, Auburn, MI, USA. Report date: 23 April 2014.

Dow Corning Corporation (2015a). Long-Term Research Monitoring of Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in Lake Pepin, MN (2011). Dow Corning Corporation, HES Study No. 11935-108, Auburn, MI, USA.

Dow Corning Corporation (2015b) Long-Term Research Monitoring of Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in Lake Pepin, MN(2012).Dow Corning Corporation. HES Study No: 12234-108. Auburn, MI, USA.

ECCC (2013). 5-year monitoring survey for cyclic volatile methylsiloxane (cVMS) materials in sediment and aquatic biota of the Inner Tokyo Bay (the first year), 2012. Environmental Control Center Co., Ltd. Japan. Report number: RS 104672001B

ECCC (2014). 5-year monitoring survey for cyclic volatile methylsiloxane (cVMS) materials in sediment and aquatic biota of the Inner Tokyo Bay (the second year’s survey), 2013. Environmental Control Center Co., Ltd. Japan. Report number: RS 122805001B

Evenset A, Leknes H, Christensen GN, Warner N, Remberger M and Gabrielsen GW (2009).Screening of new contaminants in samples from the Norwegian Arctic.Report 1049/2009, Norwegian Pollution Control Authority.

Kaj, L. et al., 2004. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 4: Siloxanes. Swedish Environmental Research Institute. (http://www.naturvardsverket.se/upload/02_tillstandet_i_miljon/Miljoovervakning/rapporter/miljogift/B1643.pdf)

Kierkegaard A., McLachlan MS. 2009  Determination of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in air using commercial solid phase extraction cartridges. J. Chromatogr. A  1217:3557-3560.

Schlabach M, Andersen MS, Green N, Schøyen M and Kaj L (2007).Siloxanes in the environment of the Inner Oslofjord.Report 986/2007, Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, Oslo.

TemaNord (2005). Siloxanes in the Nordic Environment. TemaNord 2005:593 Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.