Registration Dossier

Manufacture, use & exposure

Consumer Uses

Documentsopen allclose all

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Insignificant exposure via the following route:
oral
eye
inhalatory
Insignificant release via the following route:
air
Pattern of exposure:
occasional

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8e: Widespread use of reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 8: Biocidal products (e.g. disinfectants, pest control)
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in an own CSR

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 26: Paper and board treatment products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 0: Other: n/a
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 28: Perfumes, fragrances
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Reference
Name:
2,2',2''-nitrilotriethanol (TEA99)
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 28: Perfumes, fragrances
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 3: Air care products
Product category (PC):
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
Product category (PC):
PC 24: Lubricants, greases, release products
Product category (PC):
PC 31: Polishes and wax blends
Product category (PC):
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 28: Perfumes, fragrances
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 3: Air care products
Product category (PC):
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
Product category (PC):
PC 24: Lubricants, greases, release products
Product category (PC):
PC 31: Polishes and wax blends
Product category (PC):
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
triethanolamine
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 3: Air care products
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
PC 24: Lubricants, greases, release products
PC 31: Polishes and wax blends
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 26: Paper and board treatment products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Triethanolamine
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of detergents and cleaners and Personal care products
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of detergents and cleaners and Personal care products
Product category (PC):
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Related assessment:
use not assessed

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 28: Perfumes, fragrances
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Consumer application of a coating or printing ink
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of paints
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Related assessment:
use assessed in an own CSR

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to consumer activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

RelWasteEnvirRep2open allclose all
Release from the site to::
wastewater
Release estimation method:
ERC
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
ERC
Release from the site to::
non-agricultural soil
Release estimation method:
ERC

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES

Exposure of humans via the environment

Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Physical form of the used product:
solid (non or low dusty form)
OtherProductCharacteristicsRepopen allclose all

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

ConditionsOfUseIndicatedInAdviceRepopen allclose all

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

OtherConditionsAffectingConsExpRepopen allclose all

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.031 mg/m³
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
ECETOC TRA consumers
Version of exposure estimation tool:
3.1 (R15)
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.014 mg/kg bw/day
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
ECETOC TRA consumers
Version of exposure estimation tool:
3.1 (R15)
Type of exposure:
oral (external) long-term intake
Exposure estimate:
0 mg/kg bw/day
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
ECETOC TRA consumers
Version of exposure estimation tool:
3.1 (R15)

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Regulatory status:
use in cosmetics products
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
end use of personal care products
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Pattern of exposure:
continuous / frequent

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Triethanolamine
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of wood protection formulations
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of wood protection formulations
Product category (PC):
PC 26: Paper and board treatment products
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Related assessment:
use not assessed

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Reference
Name:
2,2',2''-nitrilotriethanol (TEA99)
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 3: Air care products
Product category (PC):
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
Product category (PC):
PC 24: Lubricants, greases, release products
Product category (PC):
PC 31: Polishes and wax blends
Product category (PC):
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
PC 23: Leather treatment products
PC 26: Paper and board treatment products
PC 34: Textile dyes, and impregnating products
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
as such
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 3: Air care products
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Reference
Name:
2,2',2''-nitrilotriethanol (TEA99)
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 29: Pharmaceuticals
Product category (PC):
PC 39: Cosmetics, personal care products
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 3: Air care products
PC 20: Products such as ph-regulators, flocculants, precipitants, neutralisation agents
PC 24: Lubricants, greases, release products
PC 31: Polishes and wax blends
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
as such
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
yes

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8c: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Product category (PC):
PC 9a: Coatings and paints, thinners, paint removes
Product category (PC):
PC 18: Ink and toners
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 35: Washing and cleaning products
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Insignificant exposure via the following route:
oral
eye
inhalatory
Insignificant release via the following route:
air
Pattern of exposure:
occasional

Consumer uses

Reference
Name:
2,2',2''-nitrilotriethanol (TEA99)
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 8: Biocidal products (e.g. disinfectants, pest control)
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no

Consumer uses

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Triethanolamine
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
liquid
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of concrete and cement
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8f: Widespread use leading to inclusion into/onto article (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of concrete and cement
Product category (PC):
PC 1: Adhesives, sealants
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Related assessment:
use not assessed

Consumer uses

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC8a: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, indoor)
ERC8d: Widespread use of non-reactive processing aid (no inclusion into or onto article, outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Product category (PC):
PC 31: Polishes and wax blends
Substance supplied to this use in the form of:
in a mixture
Subsequent service life relevant to this use:
no
Insignificant exposure via the following route:
oral
eye
inhalatory
Insignificant release via the following route:
air
Pattern of exposure:
occasional