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Short-term toxicity to fish

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The aquatic toxicity was estimated using the PETROTOX computer model, which combines a partitioning model (used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading) with the Target Lipid Model (used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals). PETROTOX computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partition coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism. Results of computer modelling to estimate aquatic toxicity show no acute toxicity to freshwater fish at or below its maximum attainable water solubility (Redman et al., 2010b). 

Compositional analysis of oxidised bitumen using two-dimensional gas chromatography indicates a greater amount of quantifiable constituents compared to other types of bitumen. Therefore (Q)SAR data from oxidised bitumen can be used as a conservative read across for the bitumen category.