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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: terrestrial

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Description of key information

Based on BCFs calculated from paired concentrations of titanium metal and titanium trichloride in soil and plant tissue, titanium exposures are not expected to result in the bioaccumulation of titanium in terrestrial organisms.

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Additional information

No data on the behavior of titanium carbide in the environment are available. Bioconcentration data for titanium metal and titanium trichloride are presented in this section. The soluble species released are expected to be similar for each of the compounds, and are thus expected to behave similarly in the environment. However, the amount of soluble species resulting from titanium metal and titanium trichloride is different, with titanium trichloride being much more soluble. Therefore, data for titanium metal and titanium trichloride are expected to adequately capture the range of bioavailability of titanium carbide in the environment. For more details refer to the attached read-across document.

After 54-day exposure relatively low bioaccumulation of titanium is observed in leaves of Brassica napus, Brassica oleraccea, and Festuca rubra at soil concentrations of 3040 mg Ti/kg soil dw, with calculated concentration factors (BSAF) of approximately 0.0008, 0.00066, and 0.0002, respectively (Caille et al., 2005).

Tyler (2004) put in relation the concentration of Ti in roots of Festuca sylvatica L. to soil concentration. Soil and root samples were taken from a pristine sampling site in the South of Sweden that has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since last ≥ 50 years. The BSAF derived for beach roots is 0.16.

In addition, Wallace et al. (1977) investigated bioconcentration of Ti after 21 days in leaves, stems and roots of Phaseolus vulgaris in solution culture. Plants were exposed at Ti concentrations of up to 10E-04 M. The highest observed BCF value was 0.001126 L/kg (roots).

Thus it is concluded that titanium compounds are not expected to bioaccumulate in terrestrial organisms.