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Administrative data

Description of key information

Key studies demonstrate a lack of irritation/corrosion potential: 
Data are read-across from a structural analogue, i.e. vanadium metal powder, based on inertness and similar solubility or lack thereof.
An in vitro skin irritation study (EpiSkinTM) was performed with vanadium metal powder (Heppenheimer, 2010), and results indicate that it is not irritant to skin.
An acute eye irritation / corrosion test according to OECD 405 (Leuschner, 2010) was performed with vanadium metal powder, and results indicate that it is not irritant to eyes.
Based on read-across (see discussion), it is assumed that vanadium carbide does also not cause respiratory irritation.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin irritation / corrosion

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Eye irritation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Respiratory irritation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Additional information

Speciation:

Upon dissolution, vanadium substances transform inartificial body fluids, including PBS, sweat, gastric juice and lung fluid, predominantly to the pentavalent form,exceptin artificial lysosomal fluid; here, even pentavalent forms are converted almost completely totetravalent species already after a short period of time (for more information on in vitro bioaccessibility testing,please refer IUCLID section 7). Thus, it can be assumed that vanadium speciation in body fluids is controlled by the conditions of the respective medium but not by the vanadium source.

Read across concept:

The toxicity of vanadium carbide may reasonably be considered to be determined by the bioavailability of vanadium. As a first surrogate for bioavailability, the solubility of a test substance may be used. Under conditions of the transformation/dissolution test (T/D, OECD Series 29) with vanadium carbide powder at a loading of 1 mg/L, dissolved vanadium concentrations after 28d were 41.7 and 27.8 µg V /L at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively, while for vanadiun metal powder, dissolved vanadium concentrations after 28d were 38.4 and 39.6 µg V /L at pH 8 and pH 6, respectively. Vanadium carbide (2.1 mg/L; 20°C/pH 5.2) and vanadium metal (0.15 mg/L; 20°C/pH 5.8) are also poorly / sparingly soluble in water. In sum, read-across from a vanadium compound with similar water solubility, i.e. vanadium metal, is considered acceptable because kinetic data indicate a similar solubility potential.


Justification for selection of skin irritation / corrosion endpoint:
One reliable study conducted with vanadium is read-across to address this endpoint. Vanadium is not considered to be irritating to the skin. Consequently, vanadium carbide is also not considered to be irritating to the skin.

Justification for selection of eye irritation endpoint:
One reliable study conducted with vanadium is read-across to address this endpoint. Vanadium is not considered to be irritating to the eyes. Consequently, vanadium carbide is also not considered to be irritating to the eyes.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Skin and eye irritation:

Vanadium carbide does not possess an irritation potential and does not require classification as skin or eye irritant according to Directive 67/548/EEC and Regulation (EC) 1272/2008.

Respiratory irritation:

Vanadium carbide is only produced in briquette form. Based on the technical properties of a representative test material, the conduct of an acute inhalation toxicity test is neither technically feasible nor scientifically relevant for this type of compound. Due to the particle size, the low mobility and the negligible volatility, vanadium carbide in briquette form can safely be assumed to have avery low potential for human inhalation hazard during handling or application. In addition, vanadium carbide is poorly water soluble (1.7 mg/L at 20°C/5.2 pH) indicating inertness and a corresponding lack of potential to become bioavailable. Furthermore, pH-related effects do not need to be assumed upon contact with respiratory tract epithelia, and any lung overload associated with inert particles can be excluded. In sum, it is assumed that vanadium carbide does not cause respiratory tract irritation.