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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: inhalation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
No information
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Influence of inhaled cadmium microparticles on mouse influenza pneumonia.
Author:
Chaumard C, Quero AM, Bouley G, Girard F, Boudene C and German A
Year:
1983
Bibliographic source:
Environ. Res. 31(2):428-439

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
A study was conducted to study the effect of test material inhalation on the infectivity of an orthomyxovirus influenza strain in Swiss albino mice. A total of 132 animals were employed in this study. Animals were exposed to the test material microparticles at 9.02 mg Cd/m3 and observed for 17 d. 48 h after test material exposure, the animals were infected with an orthomyxovirus influenza strain.
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): CdO
- Impurity/Additive etc.: No information


Test animals

Species:
mouse
Strain:
Swiss
Sex:
female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River
- Weight at study initiation: 20.5 g

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
other:
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: CdO microparticles were generated in two apparatuses similar to that of Horstman et al 1973 and described in detail elsewhere (Boisset et al., 1978). Microparticle carrier atmospheres were cooled before being introduced into the exposure chambers.
- Method of particle size determination: On electron photomicrographs and analysed according to Raabe (1980)
- MMAD (Mass median aerodynamic diameter) / GSD (Geometric st. dev.): 1.79 µm with count median diameter of 0.33 µm

Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Duration of exposure:
15 min
Concentrations:
9.02 mg Cd/m³
No. of animals per sex per dose:
132
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 17 d
- Necropsy of survivors performed: Yes
Statistics:
No statistics reported

Results and discussion

Preliminary study:
Not applicable
Effect levelsopen allclose all
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
> 9.02 mg/m³ air
Exp. duration:
15 min
Remarks on result:
other: Reversible general (body weight) and local (local/body weight ratio) biometric disturbances
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
other: LOAEL
Effect level:
9 mg/m³ air
Exp. duration:
15 min
Remarks on result:
other: Reversible general (body weight) and local (local/body weight ratio) biometric disturbances
Mortality:
Number of deaths at each dose level: death rate:    
Virus-control mice: 55/138 (40 %)
Non-infected exposed to Al2O3 controls: 67/132 (51 %)      
CdO-infected mice: 25/133 (19%)
Time of death : Deaths occurred after the 7th day postexposure (to influenza)
Clinical signs:
No information
Body weight:
No information.
Gross pathology:
No information.
Other findings:
- Other observations: Mice intoxicated by test material but not infected had reversible general (body weight) and local (local/body weight ratio) biometric disturbances. In intoxicated and infected animals, infectious death rate was significantly lower than in Al2O3 exposed animals or virus controls. Virus titration in lung confirmed the infectious death rate; at the Day 10 after infection, the virus titer in lung of test material exposed mice was lower than in virus controls.

Any other information on results incl. tables

None


Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other:
Remarks:
Criteria used for interpretation of results: expert judgment
Conclusions:
Hence, under the conditions of the test, the test material inhaled animals were found to be protected against the infection by the influenza virus.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to study the effect of test material inhalation on the infectivity of an orthomyxovirus influenza strain in Swiss albino mice.

A total of 132 animals were employed in this study. Animals were exposed to the test material microparticles at 9.02 mg Cd/m3 and observed for 17 d. 48 h after test material exposure, the animals were infected with an orthomyxovirus influenza strain.

Mice intoxicated by test material but not infected had reversible general (body weight) and local (local/body weight ratio) biometric disturbances. In intoxicated and infected animals, infectious death rate was significantly lower than in Al2O3 exposed animals or virus controls. Virus titration in lung confirmed the infectious death rate; at the Day 10 after infection, the virus titer in lung of test material exposed mice was lower than in virus controls.

Hence, under the conditions of the test, the test material inhaled animals were found to be protected against the infection by the influenza virus.