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Toxicological information

Skin sensitisation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
skin sensitisation: in vivo (non-LLNA)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study conducted under GLP.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1992
Report Date:
1992
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Final Submittal: Tin bis(2-Ethylhexanoate) CAS Number 301-10-0
Author:
The Metal Carboxylates Coalition
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
U.S. High Production Volume (HPV) Chemical Challenge Program

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 406 (Skin Sensitisation)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.6 (Skin Sensitisation)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Magnusson and Klingman (1970)
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of study:
guinea pig maximisation test
Justification for non-LLNA method:
Study performed prior to the implementation of REACH.

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Tin (II) Ethylhexanoate; also known as DABCO T-9
Lot no. 9H114551,
clear yellow liquid
Purity not reported, treated as 100%
Prepared in propylene glycol

In vivo test system

Test animals

Species:
guinea pig
Strain:
Himalayan
Sex:
female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: BRL Ltd., Basel, Switzerland
- Age at study initiation: approx. 9 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 344-465 g
- Housing: group housing of 2 animals per cage with wire-mesh floors
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 21 deg C
- Humidity (%): 55
- Air changes (per hr): 15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours light / 12 hours dark

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 1991-09-17 To: 1991-09-24

Study design: in vivo (non-LLNA)

Inductionopen allclose all
Route:
intradermal and epicutaneous
Vehicle:
propylene glycol
Concentration / amount:
Main study: 2% intradermal injection; 50% epidermally
Challenge: 10%, 5% and 2%
Challengeopen allclose all
Route:
other: epicutaneous, semiocclusive and occlusive
Vehicle:
propylene glycol
Concentration / amount:
Main study: 2% intradermal injection; 50% epidermally
Challenge: 10%, 5% and 2%
No. of animals per dose:
Preliminary: 5
Experimental: 20
Control: 10
Details on study design:
RANGE FINDING TESTS: primary irritation experiments were conducted to identify irritant test substance concentrations suitable for induction phase of the main study. In addition, a suitable non-irritant concentration was identified.

Intradermal injection
- No. of exposures: four (0.1 mL/site)
- Exposure period: 24 hours
- Test groups: one animal
- Control group: no
- Site: clipped shoulder region
- Frequency of applications: once
- Duration: 24 and 48 hour readings
- Concentrations: 5% w/w

Epidermal application
- No. of exposures: one (0.5 mL) undiluted
- Exposure period: 24 hours
- Test groups: one animal; same animal intradermally injected
- Control group: no
- Site: shaved left flank
- Frequency of applications: once
- Duration: 24 and 48 hour readings

Epidermal application
- No. of exposures: one (0.5 mL)
- Exposure period: 24 hours
- Test groups: four other animals
- Control group: no
- Site: shaved left flank
- Frequency of applications: once
- Duration: 24 and 48 hour readings
- Concentration: 100%, 50%, 25% and 10% w/w

MAIN STUDY
A. INDUCTION EXPOSURE- intradermal injection
- No. of exposures: 3, 0.1 mL
- Exposure period: 9 days
- Test groups: one
- Control group: yes, vehicle only
- Site: clipped dorsal scapular area
- Frequency of applications: once
- Duration: 9 days
- Concentrations: 2% w/w with propylene glycol; Freund's Complete Adjuvant 50:50 with distilled water; test substance at twice the concentration used emulsified in a 50:50 mixture of Freund's Complete Adjuvant

INDUCTION EXPOSURE-epidermal applications- seven days after intradermal injections
- No. of exposures: 3, 0.1 mL
- Exposure period: 48 hours
- Test groups: one
- Control group: yes, vehicle only
- Site: clipped and shaved scapular area, placed between the injection sites
- Frequency of applications: once
- Duration: 48 hours
- Concentrations: 50% w/w in propylene glycol

B. CHALLENGE EXPOSURE
- No. of exposures: 3, 0.05 mL
- Day(s) of challenge: one
- Exposure period: 24 hours
- Test groups: one
- Control group: yes, vehicle only
- Site: clipped and shaved left flank
- Concentrations: 10%, 5%, 2%
- Evaluation (hr after challenge): 24

Challenge controls:
propylene glycol
Positive control substance(s):
no

Results and discussion

Positive control results:
Not applicable

In vivo (non-LLNA)

Resultsopen allclose all
Reading:
1st reading
Hours after challenge:
24
Group:
test group
Dose level:
2% in propylene glycol
No. with + reactions:
13
Total no. in group:
20
Clinical observations:
redness and scaliness
Remarks on result:
other: Reading: 1st reading. . Hours after challenge: 24.0. Group: test group. Dose level: 2% in propylene glycol. No with. + reactions: 13.0. Total no. in groups: 20.0. Clinical observations: redness and scaliness.
Reading:
1st reading
Hours after challenge:
24
Group:
test group
Dose level:
5% in propylene glycol
No. with + reactions:
16
Total no. in group:
20
Clinical observations:
redness and scaliness
Remarks on result:
other: Reading: 1st reading. . Hours after challenge: 24.0. Group: test group. Dose level: 5% in propylene glycol. No with. + reactions: 16.0. Total no. in groups: 20.0. Clinical observations: redness and scaliness.
Reading:
1st reading
Hours after challenge:
24
Group:
test group
Dose level:
10% in propylene glycol
No. with + reactions:
17
Total no. in group:
20
Clinical observations:
redness, crust, swelling, and scaliness
Remarks on result:
other: Reading: 1st reading. . Hours after challenge: 24.0. Group: test group. Dose level: 10% in propylene glycol. No with. + reactions: 17.0. Total no. in groups: 20.0. Clinical observations: redness, crust, swelling, and scaliness.
Reading:
2nd reading
Hours after challenge:
48
Group:
test group
Dose level:
2% in propylene glycol
No. with + reactions:
13
Total no. in group:
20
Clinical observations:
redness and scaliness
Remarks on result:
other: Reading: 2nd reading. . Hours after challenge: 48.0. Group: test group. Dose level: 2% in propylene glycol. No with. + reactions: 13.0. Total no. in groups: 20.0. Clinical observations: redness and scaliness.
Reading:
2nd reading
Hours after challenge:
48
Group:
test group
Dose level:
5% in propylene glycol
No. with + reactions:
16
Total no. in group:
20
Clinical observations:
redness and scaliness
Remarks on result:
other: Reading: 2nd reading. . Hours after challenge: 48.0. Group: test group. Dose level: 5% in propylene glycol. No with. + reactions: 16.0. Total no. in groups: 20.0. Clinical observations: redness and scaliness.
Reading:
2nd reading
Hours after challenge:
48
Group:
test group
Dose level:
10% in propylene glycol
No. with + reactions:
17
Total no. in group:
20
Clinical observations:
redness, crust, swelling, and scaliness
Remarks on result:
other: Reading: 2nd reading. . Hours after challenge: 48.0. Group: test group. Dose level: 10% in propylene glycol. No with. + reactions: 17.0. Total no. in groups: 20.0. Clinical observations: redness, crust, swelling, and scaliness.

Any other information on results incl. tables

During the primary irritation experiments, no signs of systemic toxicity  were observed; however, body weight loss was noted in 3 of the 5 animals  tested.

During the main study, no symptoms of systemic toxicity were observed and  no mortality occurred.  Average body weight gain of test and control  animals was comparable.  After the 48 hours occluded epidermal induction  exposure, test animals showed slight to severe erythema and slight to  well-defined edema.  In the challenge test, 20, 16 and 13 test animals  showed a positive skin reaction in response to the 10%, 5% and 2% test  substance concentrations, respectively.

Based on these results, a sensitization rate of 85% was determined.  The  test substance should be considered to have extreme sensitizing  properties.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
sensitising
Remarks:
Migrated information
Conclusions:
The results of this study lead to a sensitization rate of 85%, which indicates that the test substance has extreme sensitizing properties in this test. The substance is classified as a skin sensitizer.
Executive summary:

The purpose of the study was to obtain information on the potential of the test substance to induce delayed contact hypersensitivity (skin sensitization) in the guinea pig after intradermal and epidermal exposures.

This study was carried out in accordance with the OECD Guideline No. 406, the EEC Directive 84/449/EEC, Part B.6, and the method described by Magnusson and Kligman.

After identification of the slightly irritating and the non-irritating test substance concentrations in the primary irritation experiments, a main study was performed with the selected test substance concentrations. The experimental animals were intradermally injected with a 2% concentration and epidermally exposed to a 50% concentration, while control animals were similarly treated, but with the vehicle only. Immediately after the epidermal exposure, the skin irritation was scored. Two weeks after the epidermal application all animals were challenged with test substance concentrations of 10%, 5% and 2%, and the vehicle. The challenge reactions were assessed 24 and 48 hours after bandage removal.

The epidermal exposure of the test substance in the induction phase resulted in slight to severe skin irritation. The epidermal exposure of the test substance in the challenge phase resulted in seventeen positive sensitization reactions in response to the 10% test substance concentration.

Under the conditions used in this study, the test substance resulted in a sensitization rate of 85 per cent.

Applying the rating of allergenicity described by Kligman, A.M. (1966) on the results obtained in this test, the test substance is considered to have extreme sesitizing properties.