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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 15 August 2016 to 2 September 2016
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
The pH was adjusted in range-finding and definitive tests. This was due to the pH of the main stock being significantly below the limits tolerable for aquatic organisms.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ISO 5667-16 (Water Quality Sampling - Guidance on biotesting of samples)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Test material information:
Composition 1
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 877, 1579, 2808, 4913 and 8774 mg/L
- Sampling method: Test material stocks were prepared using dilution series - nominal concentrations were used.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Test material was stored at room temperature in the dark.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Dilution series
- Eluate: N/A
- Differential loading: N/A
- Controls: N/A
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): N/A
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)): ASTM reconstituted hard water was used in dilution series with test material
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc.): No
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain/clone: Daphnia sp.
- Source: Animals were sources from ephippia supplied by Eco Cheshire Solutions, from MicroBioTests
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): Not specified
- Feeding during test: Animals were not fed during the test
- Food type: Desmodesmus subspicatus
- Amount: Not specified
- Frequency: Daily

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: No acclimation period
Test type:
static
Water media type:
other: ASTM reconstituted hard water without additives
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Observations were recorded at 24 hours and 48 hours of exposure to test substance
Post exposure observation period:
N/A
Hardness:
No specified
Test temperature:
20 +/- 2°C
pH:
6 - 9
Dissolved oxygen:
9.56 - 9.77 mg/L
Salinity:
No specified
Conductivity:
2.34
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 877, 1579, 2808, 4913 and 8774 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: borosilicate glass crystallising dishes
- Type: closed - Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 mg capacity
- Aeration: No aeration during the 48 hour study
- Type of flow-through: static
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): N/A
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 animals per vessel
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2 vessels per concentration
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2 vessels per control
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 2 vessels per control

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Dilution water used is ASTM reconstituted hard water without additives. Sodium hydrogen carbonate, calcium sulphate dihydrate, magnesium sulphate heptahydrate and potassium chloride were added to deionised water to create ASTM hard water.
- Total organic carbon: Not specified
- Particulate matter: Not specified
- Metals: Not specified - Pesticides: Not specified
- Chlorine: Not specified
- Alkalinity: pH 6 - 9
- Ca/mg ratio: Not specified
- Conductivity: 2.34
- Salinity: Not specified
- Culture medium different from test medium: Yes - M4 media is using as culture media, while ASTM reconstituted hard water without additives was used as the dilution water
- Intervals of water quality measurement: At 24 hours and 48 hours, at test commencement and at test termination

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: pH was adjusted from the highest concentration of 8774 mg/L from pH 2.64 to pH 8.19.
- Photoperiod: 16h light / 8h dark
- Light intensity: 275 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Immobilisation

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: No

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- Test concentrations: 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate was used as the reference substance. Potassium dichromate had an EC50 of 0.797 mg/L at 24 hours.
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
8 770 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: immobilisation
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
6 840 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
other: EC90
Effect conc.:
8 770 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: immobilisation
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 808 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: immobilisation
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: No behaviour abnormalities recorded
- Observations on body length and weight: No observations of the kind recorded
- Other biological observations: N/A
- Mortality of control: < 10% control mortality observed
- Other adverse effects control: No adverse effects
- Abnormal responses: No abnormal responses recorded
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: N/A
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: N/A
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? Yes
- Relevant effect levels: Yes
- Limit test: No
- Dose-response test: Yes
- ECx: EC50 at 24 hours was 0.797 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Both range-finding and definitive tests were calculated by Linear Interpolation within the CETIS suite of statistical analysis.

Observations recorded below from the definitive test at 24 hours and 48 hours.

   Number - dead/immobile at 24 hours  Number - dead/immobile at 24 hours   Number - dead/immobile at 48 hours   Number - dead/immobile at 48 hours  
 Nominal concentration (mg/L) Replicate A   Replicate B    Replicate A    Replicate B  Total Exposed
 877 0 20 
 1579 20 
 2808 20 
 4913  20
 8774 20 
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Glutaric acid had an EC50 of 8770 mg/L after 24 hours of exposure to D. magna, the EC50 after 48 hours was found to be 6840 mg/L. The substance is not considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity potential of glutaric acid to aquatic invertebrates was determined according to OECD Test Guideline 202, with a slight deviation due to pH adjustment. A range-finding test was used to determine the dose levels of the test substance. Daphnia manga were exposed to ASTM reconstituted hard water media treated with glutaric acid at concentrations: 877, 1579, 2808, 4913 and 8774 mg/L. Glutaric acid had an EC50 of 8770 mg/L after 24 hours of exposure to D. magna and an EC50 of 6840 mg/L after D. magna were exposed for 48 hours. Potassium dichromate had an EC50 of 0.797 mg/L after test animals were exposed for 24 hours. ASTM reconstituted hard water media was used as the control for the range-finding test, definitive test and reference test. The range-finding and definitive test controls elicited less than 10% D. magna mortality after 48 hours exposure. Glutaric acid is not considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates.

Description of key information

The acute toxicity of the tested substance to aquatic invertebrates was determined in accordance with the OECD Guideline 202 Daphnia ep. acute immobilisation test. Nominal test concentrations of the test material were prepared over the range 877 to 8774 mg/L. The freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna was exposed to the test concentrations in order to determine the concentration which elicits a 50% response from the freshwater invertebrates over 48 hours (EC50). The lowest concentration of test material producing 100% could not be determined from this study. Only the concentrations 4913 mg/L and 8774 mg/L of test material produced some mortality in this study. The test material is not considered toxic to Daphnia magna within the conditions of this study. The registered substance is not considered toxic to aquatic invertebrates based on the findings of this study.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
6 840 mg/L

Additional information