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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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The decolorization studies (Ramya Mohandass, 2007) were carried out at various temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50degree celcius). Maximum decolorization was observed at 30degree celcius(100%) and 40 degree celcius(92%) at 8 h of incubation. Between 30 and 40degree celciusthe decolorization rate was higher when compared to 20 & 50degree celcius C. The percentage decolorization was found to be low at 20degree celcius(31% at the end of 12 h). The above results confirm that theorganism is mesophilic in nature. Possible reason for this kind of activity may be because the enzymes responsible for decolorization have an optimum temperature requirement around 30-40 degree celcius. Indicates the substance is readily biodegradable.
Biodegradation test of indigo carmine (Mohandass Ramya et al, 2008) in water was performed. The test was performed with concentration of 100 mg/L and in test system bacteria Paenibacillus larvae isolated from soil, the contact duration was 0,24,48 and 72 hrs. Under the test condition indigo carmine has undergone degradation. Isatin sulfonic acid and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products.Under the test condition it is observed that Paenibacillus larvae isolated from the soil flora was found to be effective in the degradation of Indigo carmine in shorter duration. Hence, Indigo carmine was considered to be biodegradable with test substance concentration of 100 mg/L and contact duration of 0,4,48 and 72 hrs. which indicates the substance is readily biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

Biodegradation in water: screening tests:

 

Peer reviewed articles were viewed to determine the Biodegradation in water of the test compound C.I. Acid blue 74 (CAS no 860-22-0). The studies are summarized as below:

 

The decolorization studies (Ramya Mohandass, 2007) were carried out at various temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50degree celcius). Maximum decolorization was observed at 30degree celcius(100%) and 40 degree celcius(92%) at 8 h of incubation. Between 30 and 40degree celciusthe decolorization rate was higher when compared to 20 & 50degree celcius C. The percentage decolorization was found to be low at 20degree celcius(31% at the end of 12 h). The above results confirm that theorganism is mesophilic in nature. Possible reason for this kind of activity may be because the enzymes responsible for decolorization have an optimum temperature requirement around 30-40 degree celcius. Indicates the substance is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation test of indigo carmine (Mohandass Ramya et al, 2008) in water was performed. The test was performed with concentration of 100 mg/L and in test system bacteria Paenibacillus larvae isolated from soil, the contact duration was 0,24,48 and 72 hrs. Under the test condition indigo carmine has undergone degradation. Isatin sulfonic acid and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products.Under the test condition it is observed that Paenibacillus larvae isolated from the soil flora was found to be effective in the degradation of Indigo carmine in shorter duration. Hence, Indigo carmine was considered to be biodegradable with test substance concentration of 100 mg/L and contact duration of 0,4,48 and 72 hrs. which indicates the substance is readily biodegradable.

 

A Pseudomanonasstrain ‘GM3’ had been enriched from activated sludge (JIAN YU et a,l 2001) from a wastewater treatment facility at a textile company. ‘GM3’ was in an anoxic laboratory test determined to decolorize the azo dye Indigo carmine. More specifically, after 48 hours, under fixed laboratory conditions, a temperature of 35-40 degrees Celsius and anoxic/anaerobic conditions the GM3 degraded approximately 69% of the dye. The decolonization was measured by absorbance measurements of before and after incubation (no statistical test was included). The result of the absorbance measurement does not reflect whether chemical intermediaries had been formed or if the chemical had been completely degraded. Furthermore, there was no description of if a negative or positive control in the decolonization test. In conclusions, most azo dyes have been proven not to degrade under conventional conditions in an activated sludge treatment (Ganesh et al., 1994, Water Res 28(6), 1367-1376), but here it was indicated that pre-adapted Pseudomansspp. can degrade indigo carmine under specific anoxic laboratory conditions. By speculation, the data presented in this article may indicate that indigo carmine is inherently biodegradable under specific conditions.

 

From the same study , A Pseudomonas strain‘Z1’ had been enriched from activated sludge from a wastewater treatment facility at a textile company. ‘Z1’ was in an anoxic laboratory test determined to decolorize the azo dye Indigo carmine. More specifically, after 48 hours, under fixed laboratory conditions, a temperature of 35-40 degrees Celsius and anoxic/anaerobic conditions theZ1degraded approximately 87.9% of the dye. The decolonization was measured by absorbance measurements of before and after incubation (no statistical test was included). The result of the absorbance measurement does not reflect whether chemical intermediaries had been formed or if the chemical had been completely degraded. Furthermore, there was no description of if a negative or positive control in the decolonization test. In conclusions, most azo dyes have been proven not to degrade under conventional conditions in an activated sludge treatment (Ganesh et al., 1994, Water Res 28(6), 1367-1376), but here it was indicated that pre-adapted Pseudomansspp. can degrade indigo carmine under specific anoxic laboratory conditions. By speculation, the data presented in this article may indicate that indigo carmine is inherently biodegradable under specific conditions.

 

 

From optimal decolorization and kinetic modeling of synthetic dyes by pseudomonas strains, 2001, A Pseudomonas strain‘Q3’had been enriched from activated sludge from a wastewater treatment facility at a textile company. ‘Q3’ was in an anoxic laboratory test determined to decolorize the azo dye Indigo carmine. More specifically, after 48 hours, under fixed laboratory conditions, a temperature of 35-40 degrees Celsius and anoxic/anaerobic conditions theQ3degraded approximately 60.8 % of the dye. The decolonization was measured by absorbance measurements of before and after incubation (no statistical test was included). The result of the absorbance measurement does not reflect whether chemical intermediaries had been formed or if the chemical had been completely degraded. Furthermore, there was no description of if a negative or positive control in the decolonization test. In conclusions, most azo dyes have been proven not to degrade under conventional conditions in an activated sludge treatment (Ganesh et al., 1994, Water Res 28(6), 1367-1376), but here it was indicated that pre-adapted Pseudomansspp. can degrade indigo carmine under specific anoxic laboratory conditions. By speculation, the data presented in this article may indicate that indigo carmine is inherently biodegradable under specific conditions.

 

Based on the key study used and its relative supporting data, the test material indicates that the substance is readily biodegradable in water.