Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.
EC number: 238-694-4
CAS number: 14644-61-2
The aquatic toxicity of zirconium sulfate (a 'water soluble' zirconium
compound) is evaluated using data for zirconium sulfate as well as data
from read across substances such as zirconium basic carbonate (a
sparingly soluble zirconium compound) and zirconium dioxide (an
insoluble zirconium compound). Read across from insoluble or sparingly
soluble zirconium substances is considered acceptable because stirring
experiments performed with zirconium sulfate in aquatic test media
(e.g., Harris, 2014a,b; Vryenhoef and Mullee, 2014) indicated that
zirconium from the 'water soluble' zirconium sulfate does not stay in
solution at environmentally relevant pH levels. Rapid hydrolysis occurs,
resulting in precipitation of zirconium hydroxides or zirconium dioxide.
Further, heavy complexing will occur with phosphates, which results in
100% precipitation whenever phosphate is present in excess. Complexation
with carbonates may also result in progressive precipitation with
increasing pH levels. As a result, at environmentally relevant
conditions, zirconium sulfate cannot be considered as a water soluble
compound. Overall, zirconium is not bioavailable in the aquatic
environment and therefore no adverse effects are to be expected in
Further argumentation for the read across approach is given in the read
across document attached to IUCLID Section 13.
Zirconium sulfate is concluded not to be toxic (acutely) to fish and
aquatic invertebrates. The studies that were used for endpoint coverage
(performed with zirconium sulfate and/or read across substances) were
performed according to internationally accepted guidelines and did not
report any adverse effects (mortality in fish, immobilization in
daphnids) at the limit test concentration of 100 mg/L or upon exposure
to a 100% v/v saturated solution. In algal growth experiments with read
across substances, it was demonstrated that the observed growth
inhibition was concurrent with phosphate depletion. Toxicity to algae is
therefore due to phosphate deprivation as no primary toxic effects have
been observed. Although no phosphate monitoring was performed during the
algal growth inhibition study with zirconium sulfate (Vryenhoef and
Mullee, 2014), here too, the observed effect on growth of algae exposed
to the 100% v/v saturated solution can be assumed to be due to phosphate
deprivation. This is supported by the fact that no dissolved zirconium
could be detected at levels > LOQ (20 µg Zr/L) in any of the test
solutions. Phosphate deprivation is a secondary effect which is not
considered relevant at a normal environmental scale. Therefore, no
effects on algae are expected in the environment either. Finally,
zirconium sulfate was not found to be toxic to aquatic microorganisms in
an activated sludge respiration inhibition test.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
Welcome to the ECHA website. This site is not fully supported in Internet Explorer 7 (and earlier versions). Please upgrade your Internet Explorer to a newer version.
Do not show this message again