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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

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Additional information

Acute fish toxicity

In order to test possible acute effects of DMA on fish, Salmo gairdneri was chosen as test organism in an experiment conducted by Calamari et al. (1980) according to guideline "ISRA (Rome, 1973): Saggio di tossicita con animali acquatici". Using hard water a LC50 (96h) of 118 mg/L was determined, whereas using soft water a LC50 (96h) of 17 mg/L is reported, respectively. Brachydanio rerio eggs were observed for 96 hours beginning with the 8 cell stage (Groth, et al., 1993). In this experiment LC50 of 396.7 mg/L, LC100 of 4508 mg/L, and NOEL of 45.08 mg/L are reported as results. Furthermore, Pecilia reticulata was investigated according to OECD Guideline 203 (Van Leeuwen et al., 1985), resulting in a LC50(96h) value of 210 mg/L.

Chronic fish toxicity

To investigate the long-term effects of dimethylamine towards fish, juvenile Salmo gairdneri were exposed to different concentrations of the test substance for 30 days (Calamari et.al., 1979). As result a NOEC of 20 mg/L was achieved. AddItionally, an early life stage egg-fry-test with Salmo gairdneri was conducted (exposure duration 50 days) by the same author. In this case a NOEC of 0.6 mg/L and a LC50 of 1.15 mg/L were revealed.

Young rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used to investigate the mortality and histopathological changes after a 30-day exposure towards dimethylamine, resulting in a NOEC greater or equal to 10 mg/L (Calamari, Galassi and Da Gasso, 1979).

Acute invertebrate toxicity

DMA was also tested for possible acute ecotoxicological effects on Daphnia magna. A study was performed in accordance with EU Method C.2, exposure period lasted 48 hours (BASF, 1988). Evaluation of effects was performed after 24 and 48 hours. The test revealed the following results:

EC0(48h): 62.5 mg/L, EC50(48 h): 88.67 mg/L, EC100(48 h): 250 mg/L. Another experiment was performed according to AFNOR, Norme Expérimentale N.F.T. 90-301 (1974) (Calamari et al., 1980). This test revealed an IC50 (immobilization concentration for 50 % of the animals at 24 h) value in hard water (320 mg CaCO3/L) of 48 mg/L. In another experiment the test substance was investigated in its neutralised and non-neutralised form, resulting in EC50(24h) values of 98 mg/L and 286 mg/L, respectively (Trenel and Kuhn, 1982). Due to the shorter exposure time (24 h instead 48 h according to most test guidelines; e.g. OECD 202), the test has only limited validity. Further investigation was performed by Van Leeuwen et al. (1985). The total exposure duration was 48 hours, resulting in an EC50 value of 50 mg/L, based on mortality.

Chronic invertebrate toxicity

The structural analogue DEA (diethylamine, CAS No 109-89-7) was tested for long-term effects on Daphnia magna. The study was performed in accordance with OECD guideline 211 (Daphnia magna reproduction test), exposure period lasted 21 days. The test revealed the following results:

NOEC: 4.2 mg/L, LC50: 5.7 mg/L. Concerning dimethylamine, the long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was investigated over a 30 day expsosure period of newborn waterfleas (Daphnia magna) (Calamari, Galassi and Da Gasso, 1979). As result, a NOEC(30d) of 10 mg/L was reported.

Algal toxicity

In the context of toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria published information is available (Calamari et al., 1980). Selenastrum capricornutum was used to determine the EC0 (2 mg/L), EC50 (9 mg/L), and EC100 (40 mg/L) after an exposure duration of 96 hours. An EC50(96h) value of 9 mg/L is also cited in the peer-reviewed database HSDB (2010). Chlorella pyrenoidosa was exposed to the test substance for 96 h in a static experiment (Van Leeuwen et al., 1985). The EC50 value was reported as 30 mg/L. This value is also cited in the peer-reviewed database HSDB (2010). Scenedesmus quadricauda was used in a static experiment to investigate the toxicity of the test substance (Chromek, Kupec and Mladek, 1983). An addition of 150 mg/L test substance showed pratically no effect on the biomass production rate. 300 mg/L induced a substantial growth-rate reduction in the approx. linear portion of the algal growth curve. Since the exposure period was about 150 hours, the test system has to be considered as unsuitable, since this period last longer than the phase of exponential algal growth. Furthermore, in a static screening study of Eide-Haugmo et al. (2012) with marine phytoplankton species Skeletonema costatum aquatic toxicity of dimethylamine (DMA, CAS 124-40-3) and further 42 amines was determined. The test was performed according to ISO guideline 10253 of 1999, natural seawater served as test medium. Test substance concentrations used in this study were based on pre-tests with wide concentration-ranges. For DMA a EC50 (72 h) value of 28 mg/L was calculated.

Toxicity to aquatic microorganisms

Regarding toxicity of dimethylamine to aquatic microorganisms no valid experimental data is available for DMA, however, read-across to diethylamine (CAS 109 -89 -7) is possible because of the similarity in chemical structure of both substances. One test was conducted according to ISO 8192 by BASF AG (1990), where activated domestic sludge was used. EC10 (30 min exposure) obtained in this test amounts to >1000 mg/L. In a second study (only supporting data), Pseudomonas putida was used in a static fresh water test according to German Standard DIN 38412, Part 8 (BASF AG, 1986). The study resulted in EC10(17h): 35 mg/L and an EC50(17h) of 47 mg/L.