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Toxicity to soil macro organisms

Acute toxicity

Noack (1999) determined the acute effects of tallow alkyl amine on earthwormEisenia fetidaaccording to OECD Guideline 207. Different concentrations of tallow alkyl amine (100, 180, 320, 580, 1000 mg/kg dry weight) were applied once at the beginning of the test. No significant mortality was observed in any of the tested concentrations after 14 days of exposure. As test result a LC50 > 1000 mg/kg dry weight was obtained from this study.

Long-term toxicity

The effects of amines, hydrogenated tallow (Armeen HT) on mortality, biomass and reproduction of Eisenia fetida were tested according to OECD 222 under a static exposure for56 days (Noack, 2006). Natural soil (Lufa 2.2) was used as substrate, and the different concentration of the substance mixed with the substrate. The concentrations applied were 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg soil dry weight. In addition tests using control and vehicle control were performed.

The test is valid without restrictions and the results are reliable. After 28 days of exposure, no effects on survival of the adult worms were observed in all concentrations. After the following four weeks, the reproduction rate (average number of juveniles) was significantly reduced in the concentrations of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg soil compared to the control. Hence, the LOEC is 500 mg/kg soil and the NOEC 200 mg/kg soil.This NOEC can be used as a chronic endpoint representing heterotrophs (consumer) in the terrestrial environment.

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

Two acute studies have been performed on terrestrial organisms (plants and earthworms) using both tallow alkyl amine (Genamin TA 100 D) as test substance:

The growth test with terrestrial plants was conducted according to the OECD Guideline 208 by Noack (2000). Test systems were a monocotyledon (oat) and two dicotyledons (red clover and radish). Seeds of each plant were exposed to different concentrations of tallow alkyl amine (1, 10, 100 mg test item per kg soil dry weight) and a control. No vehicles were used to dissolve the test substance. The toxic effects of the soil incorporated test item on the emergence of seedlings and the early stages of growth were determined by visual observations and dry weight determination. No phytotoxic effects were observed throughout the test in all replicates resulting in a LC50 (emergence) and a EC50 (growth) of > 100 mg/kg dw.As no effect on growth and emergence for all three species was observed at the highest concentration of 100 mg/kg dw. the NOEC is > 100 mg/kg dw. as well. The NOEC can be used as a chronic endpoint representing autotrophs (producer) in the terrestrial compartment.

7.2.1.3Toxicity to soil micro-organisms

Measured data on the toxicity to soil microorganisms are not available. But read across to the quat N-(C12-14) alkyl, N-Hydroxyalkyl, N,N-dimethylammonium chloride (HYEQS) (Clariant, 2009) can be done. HYEQS has similar sorption properties when compared to the Primary alkyl amines. In the OECD 209 test of sludge respiration inhibition (Clariant, 2010a) HYEQS has a EC10 of 4 mg/L and in the OECD 216 Soil microorganism test a NOEC of > 1000 mg/kg soil dw. (Clariant, 2010a).Cocoalkyl amines having a carbon distribution with a maximum at C12-C14 has a EC10 of 5.5 mg/L in the OECD 209 test (see Table 7.4.1-1). Based on these facts a NOEC of 1000 mg/kg dw. for soil micro-organisms can be justified forCocoalkyl amine in a read across approach as well. This NOEC can be used as a chronic endpoint representing detritivors (decomposers) in the terrestrial compartment.

Toxicity to other terrestrial organisms

The results of three studies of the nematodical effect of primary fatty amines on three different species of nematode are summarized in table 3.2.9. The tests were carried out under comparable conditions at 37°C in NaCl solution. The EC100 values determined withAncylostoma canniumreveal an increasingly toxic effect with increasing chain length of the fatty amines (Ishizuka et al. 1971).

Table:Nematodical effect of primary fatty amines (test conditions 37°C, NaCl-solution)

Species

effect [mg/l]

C8

C10

C12

C16

C18

Reference

Toxocara canis(larvae) (dog ascarid)

3h-EC100

-

79

-

-

-

Kiuchi et al. 1987

Ancylostoma cannium(larvae) (dog hookworm)

24h-EC100

200

200

6.25

3.13

1.6

Ishizuka et al.(1971)

Ascaris lumbricoides(human ascarid)

1h-EC0
0.5h-EC100

-
-

1000
-

-
1000

-
-

-
-

Anderson and Hurwitz (1953)

 

Nagase et al. (1982) exposed the nematodeBursaphelenchus lignicolusto different fatty amines in an aqueous test solution for 24 hours at 25°C (100 worms/ml; amine concentration 10 E-3 – 10 mmol/l; at chain lengths of and above 14 C atoms using solubilizer). The toxic effect on the nematodes increased from octylamine (24h-LC50 = 15.5 mg/l) to decylamine (24h-LC50 = 11.8 mg/l) and then remained constant for the longer chain homologous at 24h-LC50 = 2.1-2.3 mg/l.

However, as unsuitable test systems were used, the test results obtained forAncylostoma canniumandBursaphelenchus lignicoluscan only give a rough indication of the nematodical effect of primary fatty amines and are therefore not used for the further assessment.