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EC number: 200-087-7
CAS number: 51-28-5
to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic
compounds in the atmosphere 2,4-dinitrophenol, which has a vapour
pressure of 1.49 X10-5 mm Hg at 18 °C, is expected to exist as a vapour
in the ambient atmosphere. The vapour-phase 2,4-dinitrophenol is
degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced
hydroxyl radicals (SRC).
detection of 2,4-DNP by GC in particulate matter in air are indirect
indications of the presence of these compounds, but the
observation that dinitrophenols are found at least partly in the
particulate-sorbed state in the air indicates that their bioavailability
from air is < 100% (Nojima K, Kawaguchi A, Ohya T, et al. 1983).
Dry and wet
deposition of particulate dinitrophenols are the two significant removal
processes in the air, (Alber et al. 1989; Cape1 et al. 1991; Levsen et
al. 1990). The detection of 2,4-DNP in rain, and snow showed least
partial removal of these compounds occurs by physical processes (Alber
M, Bîhm HB, Brodesser J, et al. 1989).
vapour-phase dinitrophenols undergo long-distance transport in the
atmosphere needs further study.
environmental transport of dinitrophenols from water by volatilization
would not be significant. The high solubility of 2,4-dinitrophenol in
water (5600 mg/l at 18 °C) and its presence in solution primarily as an
anion, strongly favour a partitioning tendency toward water rather than
air. In fact, based on its vapour pressure, water solubility, and
presence predominantly in ionic forms in most natural waters (pKa = 4.09
for 2,4-DNP) the volatilization from water to air is not significant and
the loss of dinitrophenols from water due to volatilization it can be
considered negligible (Callahan MA, Slimak MW, Gabel NW, et al. 1979).
into water, 2,4-dinitrophenol may be adsorbed to suspended solids and
sediment in the water column based upon the Koc value.
sorption and subsequent transport of dinitrophenols from water to
suspended solids, sediment and soil would be significant in natural
waters that are acidic and/or have high organic matter and clay content.
It has been studied that organic carbon content, clay content, and pH of
soil and sediment influence the amount sorbed (high clay and organic
carbon content and low pH) and increase the concentration of the
un-ionized form (Kaufman, 1976 and Callahan, 1979).
A study on
concentration ranges of 2,4-DNP in the water of an agricultural watershed showed
that the transport of 2,4-dinitrophenol to adjacent surface water or
land occurs via runoff or as a result of hydrogeological movement of
groundwater to surface water from fields where dinitrophenols have been
used as pesticides, or other pesticides have been applied
(dinitrophenols may also originate as impurities in certain pesticides
such as Dinoseb).
that 2,4-dinitrophenol is expected to have high mobility in soil
(Martins JM, Mermoud A: J Contam Hydrol, 1998). Measured Koc values are
in the range of 13.5-16.6
and estimated value of 284.3 L/kg (Kow method). Moreover the pKa of
2,4-dinitrophenol is 4.09, which indicates that this compound will exist
primarily as an anion in moist soil surfaces and anions are expected to
have very high mobility in soils (SRC).
of 2,4-dinitrophenol from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an
important fate process (SRC) since the anion will not volatilize and the
neutral species has a Henry's Law constant of 8.6X10-8 atm-cu m/mole at
20 °C and a vapour pressure of
mm Hg at 18 °C (Wild and Jones (1992). The possibility of volatilization
of phenolic compounds in soil via co-distillation with water has been
suggested and release to air via aerosol formation is possible
(Kincannon and Lin 1985).
mobility of dinitrophenols in soils decreases with increase in acidity,
clay, low pH and organic matter content. The ionized form is more water
soluble and moves faster through soil.
transport of dinitrophenols from soil to groundwater also may occur via
leaching. The amount of DNP leached depends on the dinitrophenol
adsorption capability of soils. Adsorption of phenols in soil increases
with a decrease in pH and an increase in organic carbon, goethite (one
of the most common iron oxides in soil), and clay content (Hudson-Baruth
and Seitz 1986; Kaufman 1976; O’Connor et al. 1990; Shea et al. 1983;
Stone et al. 1993).
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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