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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: terrestrial

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation: terrestrial
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No experimental details available
Justification for type of information:
See attached read-across justification
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Analyis of Bi concentrations in soils and mushrooms in Germany.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Radiolabelling:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Clitocybe odora
Test temperature:
not reported
pH:
not reported
TOC:
not reported
Moisture:
not reported
Details on test conditions:
not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not reported
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.047 dimensionless
Details on results:
Bi concentration in soil: 5.6 mg Bi/kg dw
Bi concentration in fungi: 0-0.26 mg Bi/kg dw
Reported statistics:
not reported
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
No experimental details are available; study is used as weight of evidence for the absence of Bi accumulation in plants.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation: terrestrial
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No paired observations of Bi concentrations in soil and plants, only concentration ranges reported, no individual data.
Justification for type of information:
See read-across justification attached below.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Determination of Bismuth contamination in plants and soil near a mine in Korea.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Radiolabelling:
no
Details on sampling:
Various crop plants including corn grain (Zea mays), jujube grain (Zizyphus jujuba), perilla leaves (P. frutescens var. japonica), red pepper (Capsicum annuum), soybean leaves (Glycine max) and spring (Welsh) onions (Allium cepa) were sampled in and around the mine. Similar materials were also collected at a nearby control area. The samples were thoroughly washed in deionized water and dried in a clean room at room temperature (20 °C) for 5 days.
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Zea mays, Capsicum annuum, Glycine max, Allium cepa, Zizyphus jujuba, P. frutescens var. Japonica
Test temperature:
not reported
pH:
4.9-6.6
TOC:
organic matter: 3.1-5.4%
Moisture:
not reported
Details on test conditions:
unpolluted soil, Clay%: 2-16, CEC: 13-53 cmolc/kg.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
not reported
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.021 dimensionless
Basis:
other: grains
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: for Zea mays
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.014 dimensionless
Basis:
other: peppers
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: for Capsicum annuum
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.029 dimensionless
Basis:
other: leaves
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: for Glycine max
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.114 dimensionless
Basis:
other: onion
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: for Allium cepa
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.007 dimensionless
Basis:
other: grain
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: for Zizyphus jujuba
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.036 dimensionless
Basis:
other: leaves
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: for perilla
Details on results:
Bi concentration in soil: 0.9-1.8 mg Bi/kg dw
Bi concentration in plants:
- maize grains: 0.03 mg Bi/kg dw
- pepper: 0.01-0.04 mg Bi/kg dw
- soybean leaves: 0.02-0.08 mg Bi/kg dw
- spring onions: 0.06-0.25 mg Bi/kg dw
- jujube grain: 0.01-0.02 mg Bi/kg dw
- perilla leaves: 0.05 mg Bi/kg dw
Reported statistics:
not reported
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
No paired observations of Bi concentrations in soil and plants, only concentration ranges reported, no individual data; study is used as weight of evidence for the absence of Bi accumulation in plants.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation: terrestrial
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Only averages and standard error of 5 root and soil samples were reported. No relevant exposure: only top 4 cm of the soil samples, not representative for the whole soil
Justification for type of information:
See read-across justification attached below.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Determination of ambiet Bismuth concentration in soil and plants from an unpolluted area.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Radiolabelling:
no
Details on sampling:
The site studied was a beech forest stand in North-central Scania (568059N; 138389E), South Sweden. Sampling was carried out in early November 2002, just after leaf-fall. Five square sampling areas, each 50=50 cm, were selected along a 40 m line in the middle of the forest (ca. 0.5 km from any forest margin), each 10 m apart and ) 2 m from the nearest beech trunk. Litter, mainly consisting of entire and little decomposed beech leaves, was removed and the upper 4 cm of the
mor with numerous fine beech roots was sampled quantitatively using metal-free plastic tools and HCl yaq washed, powder-free plastic gloves (as throughout subsequent sampling and pre-treatments). The material was passed through a 6 mm HCl yaq washed nylon screen mounted on a wooden frame, all mor material passing the screen collected as soil sample. The <1 mm diameter roots were cut and collected from the material remaining on the screen and carefully washed with demin. water in a laboratory, where no chemicals were allowed. The root tips were morphologically ectomycorrhizal. Each sample was carefully mixed and all materials dried at 40 8C to constant weight.
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Fagus sylvatica
Details on test organisms:
The beech stand was closed, dominating trunks being 100 – 130-year-old and developed from former semi-natural, never-fertilized wooded pastures.
Test temperature:
not reported
pH:
3.2-3.6
TOC:
not reported
Moisture:
not reported
Details on test conditions:
The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor;
raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution
Nominal and measured concentrations:
field concentrations are measured.
Type:
BSAF
Value:
0.13 dimensionless
Basis:
other: fine roots (<1 mm diameter)
Calculation basis:
steady state
Details on results:
Bi concentration soil: 0.092 mg Bi/kg dw
Bi concentration plant: 0.012 mg Bi/kg dw
Reported statistics:
not reported
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Only averages and standard error of 5 root and soil samples were reported. No relevant exposure: only top 4 cm of the soil samples, not representative for the whole soil.; study is used as weight of evidence for the absence of Bi accumulation in plants.

Description of key information

No reliable data are available for the bioaccumulation of bismuth subnitrate in terrestrial organisms. The data available for uptake of read-across substance, bismuth, in plants and fungi indicate BSAF values between 0.007 and 0.13, indicating the absence of bismuth accumulation from soil to plants or fungi. No data were identified for bioaccumulation of bismuth subnitrate or bismuth in terrestrial invertebrates.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

BCF (terrestrial species):
0.13 dimensionless

Additional information

No reliable data are available for the bioaccumulation of bismuth subnitrate or bismuth in terrestrial organisms. There are data available for uptake of read-across substance, bismuth, in plants and fungi with a range in plant bismuth concentrations between 0.01 and 0.26 mg bismuth/kg dry weight for soil concentrations between 0.09 and 5.6 mg bismuth/kg dry weight. This results in BSAF values between 0.007 and 0.13, indicating the absence of bismuth accumulation from soil to plants or fungi. No data were identified for bioaccumulation of bismuth subnitrate or bismuth in terrestrial invertebrates.