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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study performed according to OECD Guideline 202.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2007
Report Date:
2007

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
RCC Ltd - Zelgliweg 1 - 4452 Itingen/Switzerland

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Glyoxylic acid 50 %
Batch No: B192071721
Purity: 50.15%
Expiration date: 21-Jun-2008
Solubility in water: Soluble in all proportions (at 20 °C)
pH: 0.3 (at 19.5 °C)
Aggregate state/physical form at room temperature: Liquid
Color: Colorless to yellowish
Storage condition: At room temperature at about 20 °C, in the dark.

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
For the determination of the actual test item concentrations, duplicate samples were taken from each treatment befor the start of the test and at the end of the test after 48 hours.
For the 48-hour stability samples, the contents of the respective replicates were combined prior to sampling.
All samples were stored deep-frozen (at about -20 °C) immediately after sampling.

Test solutions

Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
The test medium of the highest nominal concentration of 200 mg/L was prepared by dissolving 301.7 mg of test item completely in 1500 mL of test water using intense stirring for 15 minutes at room temperature. Adequate volumes of this test medium were diulted with test water to prepare the test media with the lower test item concentrations. The test media were prepared just before introduction of the daphnids (i.e., start of the test).

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The study was performed with young daphnids of the species Daphnia magna Straus. A clone of this species (defined by the supplier as clone 5) was originally supplied by the University of Sheffield/UK in 1992. Since that time, the clone has been bred in the Laboratories of RCC in reconstitued water of the quality identical to the water quality used in the tests (in respect to pH, main ions, and total hardness) and under temperature and light conditiosn identical to those of the test. A the start of the test, the organisms used in the test were 6-24 hours old and were not first brood progeny.
For evaluation of the quality of the daphnia clone and the experimental conditions, potassium dichromate is tested as a positive control twice a year.

Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
48 h

Test conditions

Hardness:
2.5
Test temperature:
20 °C
pH:
The pH of the test medium with the highest test concentration of nominal 200 mg/L was 4.0 after the test item application. The pH was adjusted to 6.2 with 25 drops of a 1 M sodium hydroxide solution.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The following nonimal concentrations of Glyoxylic acid 50 % were tested: 9.3, 20, 43, 93 and 200 mg/L.
Additionally, a control was tested in parallel (test water without test item). Nominal concentrations above 200 mg/L were not tested.
Details on test conditions:
For each treatment, 20 daphnids were used divided into four replicates of five daphnids each.
The volume of test solution provided for each daphnia was 10 mL. Thus, the requirement of the test guidelines for the minimum volume of 2 mL test medium per daphnia was fulfilled. The daphnids were randomly distributed to the test vessels at initiation of the test.
For further information see section "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
> 200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Details on results:
The analytically determined concentration of the test item in the analyzed test medium (nominal 200 mg/L test item) at the start and the end of the test was 85 and 81 % of the nominal value, respectively. Under the conditions of the test, the test item Glyoxylic acid 50 % was sufficiently stable during the test period of 48 h.
Therefore, all reported results are related to the nominal concentration of the test item Glyoxylic acid 50 % and Glyoxylic acid (concentration in brackets).
In the control and at the test concentrations up to and including the nominal concentration of 200 mg/L (100.3 mg/L), no immobilized test organisms were observed during the test period of 48 hours.
Therefore, the 48-hour NOEC and the 48-hour EC0 to Daphnia magna were determined to be at least 200 (100.3) mg/L.
The 48-hour NOEC and the 48-hour EC0 might even be higher but concentrations above 200 (100.3) mg/L. The 48-hour EC50 and the 48-hour EC100 were clearly hiher than 200 (100.3) mg/L.
These values could not be quantified due to the absence of toxicity at the test concentration up to and including the nominal concentration of 200 (100.3) mg/L.
No remarkable observations were made concerning the appearance of the test media. All test media were clear solutions throughout the entire test duration.
At the beginning and the end of the test period, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the test media and the control were at least 8.1 mg/L, the pH value of the test medi was in the range of 6.2 to 7.8 (after adjustment) and the water temperature during the test was in the range of 20°C.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
For evaluation of the quality of the daphnia clone and the experimental conditions, potassium cichromate is tested as a positive control twice a year.
- Results with reference substance valid: yes, (historical range of the RCC laboratory 1996-2007: 48-h EC50 : 0.53-1-1 mg/L)
- EC50/LC50: 0.84 mg/L (last test June 2007)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48-hour NOEC and the 48-hour EC0 to Daphnia magna were determined to be at least 200 (100.3) mg/L.
The 48-hour EC50 and the 48-hour EC100 were clearly higher than 200 (100.3) mg/L.
These values could not be quantified due to the absence of toxicity at the test concentration up to and including the nominal concentration of 200 (100.3) mg/L
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of the test item Glyoxylic acid 50 % to Daphnia magna was determined in a 48 -hour static test according to the EU Commission Directive 92/69/EEC, Part C.2 (1992) and the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, No 202 (2004).

The nominal test item (Glyoxylic acid 50 %) concentrations tested were 9.3, 20, 43, 93 and 200 mg/L. A control group was tested in parallel.

The analytically determined concentration of the test item in the analyzed test medium (nominal 200 mg/L) at the start and the end of the test was 85 and 81 % of the nominal value, respectiveley. Under the conditions of the test, the test item Glyoxylic acid 50 % was sufficiently stable during the test period of 48 hours. Therefore, all reported results are related to the nominal concentration of the test item Glyoxylic acid 50 % and Glyoxylic acid (concentration in brackets).

In the control and at the test concentrations up to and including the nominal concentration of 200 mg/L (100.3 mg/L), no immobilized test organisms were observed during the test period of 48 hours.

Therefore, the 48-hour NOEC and the 48-hour EC0 to Daphnia magna were determined to be at least 200 (100.3) mg/L. The 48-hour NOEC and the 48-hour EC0 might even be higher but concentrations above 200 (100.3) mg/L were not tested. The 48 -hour EC50 and the 48 -hour EC100 were clearly higher than 200 (100.3) mg/L. These values could not be quantified due to the absence of toxicity at the test concentration up to and including the nominal concentration of 200 (100.3) mg/L.