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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
30 days
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Purity and physical chemical properties of test substance not reported
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
one group of 36 bluegill sunfish weighing each about 2-4 g was exposed to Dechlorane Plus 25 at a concentration of 0.1 ppm for 30 days in a dynamic system. The fish were observed for mortality and behavioural changes, and samples of fish and water were analysed for test substance concentration at regular intervals.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples of fish were taken pretest and on days 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30. Samples of water were taken pretest and on days 0, 6, 18, 24, and 30.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
Dechlorane Plus 25 was used as 0.001% solution in acetone. This solution was injected at 90 seconds intervals beneath the water surface of the test tank.
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
Bluegill sunfish with an average weight of 2 - 4 g
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
30 d
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
106 - 144 ppm CaCO3
Test temperature:
19.2 - 22 °C
pH:
7.8 - 9.1
Dissolved oxygen:
7.6 - 8.6 ppm
Salinity:
alkalinity 58 - 69 ppm CaCO3
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal 0.1 ppm, measured:
day 0 (6 hours): 0.102 ppm, day 6: 0.095 ppm, day 12: 0.074 ppm, day 18: 0.083 ppm, day 24: 0.085 ppm, day 30: 0.069 ppm
Details on test conditions:
injection of test substance into water every 90 seconds, dynamic system, observation of mortality and behaviour
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 0.102 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: mortality and behaviour
Details on results:
No effects on mortality and behaviour were observed, the concentration in fish increased from 0.111 ppm on day 0 to 0.385 ppm on day 30, the concentration in water decreased from 0.0102 oom on day 0 to 0.069 ppm on day 30 giving an accumulation factor of 5.58 in fish.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
none reported

Test Day       Water concentration       Fish concentration       Magnification factor

0 (6 h)              0.102 ppm                     0.111 ppm                     1.09

6                      0.095 ppm                     0.181 ppm                      1.91

12                     0.074 ppm                     0.130 ppm                      1.76

18                     0.083 ppm                     2.15 ppm                      25.9

24                     0.085 ppm                     0.320 ppm                      3.76

30                     0.069 ppm                     0.385 ppm                      5.58

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Not toxic to fish at a concentration of 0.1 ppm over an exposure period of 30 days. No relevant accumulation in fish at a concentration of 0.1 ppm over an exposure period of 30 days.
Executive summary:

A group of 36 bluegill sunfish with an average weight of 2 -4 g was exposed to Dechlorane Plus 25 in a dynamic system at a concentration of 0.1 ppm (nominal) corresponding to 0.102 ppm (initial analytical) for 30 days. No effects on mortality and behaviour was observed. The test substance accumulated slightly in fish by a factor of 5.58 within 30 days. No toxicity and no relevant accumulation was observed.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
30 days
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Purity and chemical physical properties of test substance not reported, the nominal concentration could not be analytically verfied, precipitation with unpredictable intake of precipitated test substance by the fish cannot be excluded.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Juvenile bluegill sunfish were exposed to Dechlorane Plus 515 at a nominal concentration of 1 ppm in a static system for 30 days. Mortality and behavioural changes were recorded. Samples of fish and water were analysed for test substance concentration at regular intervals.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples of water and fish were collected pretest and on days 7, 14, 21, and 30.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
Dechlorane Plus 515 was added to the test solution as 1% suspension in acetone under vigorous stirring. The test solution was aerated during the testing period.
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
Juvenile fish weighing between 2 and 6 g
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
30 d
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
not reported
Test temperature:
18 °C
pH:
not reported
Dissolved oxygen:
not reported
Salinity:
not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
In water: nominal: 1 ppm, measured on day 7: 0.046 ppm, day 14: 0.014 ppm, day 21: 0.001 ppm, day 30: 0.003 ppm
In fish: day 7: 6.03 ppm, day 14: 7.80 ppm, day 21: 8.78 ppm, day 30: 8.72 ppm
Details on test conditions:
Static system, test substance was introduce once on day 0, the water was aerated, but the oxygen concentration was not measured.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: mortality and behaviour
Details on results:
No effect on mortality and behaviour was seen at a nominal concentration of 1 ppm, but analytically, only 0.046 ppm were detected on day 7 and 0.003 ppm on day 30. As the test substance in only very poorly soluble in water, marked precipitation can be assumed. Precipitates may have been ingested by the fish, thus making the results on accumulation not reliable.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
none
Reported statistics and error estimates:
not reported

Test day              Water concentration              Fish concentration

0                             < 0.0001 ppm                     < 0.010 ppm

7                             0.046 ppm                            6.03 ppm

14                            0.014 ppm                            7.80 ppm

21                            0.001 ppm                            8.78 ppm

30                            0.003 ppm                            8.72 ppm 

Conclusions:
No toxic effects on bluegill sunfish at a concentration of nominal 1ppm (initially analytically only 0.046 ppm) with an exposure period of 30 days. As the test substance is very poorly soluble, precipitation can be assumed. The results on toxicity and accumulation appear not reliable.
Executive summary:

A group of 20 young bluegill sunfish weighing between 2 and 6 g was exposed to Dechlorane Plus 515 at a nominal concentration of 1 ppm (initally analytically only 0.046 ppm) in a static system for 30 days. No effects on behaviour were observed. The concentrations in fish were determined between 6.03 ppm on day 7 and 8.72 ppm on day 30 with a small increase between day 7 and day 30. The nominal concentration of 1 ppm could not be analytically verified, and veryl low concentrations between 0.046 ppm on day 7 adn 0.003 ppm on day 30 were found. As the test substance is very poorly water soluble, precipitation can be assumed, and the fishes may have ingested precipitated material. The results on toxicity and accumulation appear not reliable.

Description of key information

No toxicity to fish (no mortality and no effect on behaviour) was observed in  two long-term toxicity studies with exposure to nominal 0.1 ppm (analytical 0.069 -0.102 ppm) and nominal 1 ppm (analytical 0.001 - 0.046 ppm) for 30 days.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater fish:
0.102 mg/L

Additional information