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EC number: 931-292-6
CAS number: 308062-28-4
In a Continuous activated sludge (CAS) test removal of parent amine
oxide was > 99.8 % in both units. In a monitoring study performed in the
Netherlands, the influent and effluent concentrations of C12 and C14
amine oxide was measured in six municipal sewage treatment plants. The
BOD removal was 96-98 %. On the basis of these studies, a removal rate
in STP of 98 % is proposed for modelling. In a river water die away
study the half-life of amine oxide was determined to be 3.2 days. In a
biodegradation test performed using anaerobic digester sludge the rate
constant for mineralization of the amine oxide was 1.32/day.
The biodegradation of
C12/C14 amine oxide (AO) was evaluated in a continuous activated sludge
(CAS) test [Lisec (1995)]. The sludge and sewage were from a municipal
sewage treatment plant receiving predominantly domestic waste. The CAS
units were dosed with 14C-dodecyl amine oxide. After the CAS units
stabilized, radioactivity in the effluent, evolved as CO2, and sorbed to
solids was measured. Parent AO and metabolites were measured in effluent
and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). Effluent from the CAS units
was also used in a subsequent river water die away test.
The inoculum was
acclimated to the test substance for 3 weeks prior to testing. Separate
CAS units were operated at concentrations of 110 µg/L
and 394 µg/L
(as active ingredient AO). A radiolabelled 14C tracer was used to
monitor mineralization and removal.
In principle, the
study followed the OECD 303A guideline, and it was GLP. However, the
influent sewage was fed intermittently, not continuously as is typical
in a CAS test. More importantly, the effluent was not adequately
preserved when sampled, permitting additional biodegradation after
exiting the CAS unit. The results from this study, specifically on
removal of parent and formation of metabolites, are unreliable, due to
the methodological limitations.
Samples from the CAS
test (effluent, etc.) were analysed at the laboratory where the test was
conducted and also at the laboratories of the sponsor company. The test
laboratory and the sponsor both measured total radioactivity (results
summarised below). Based on total radioactivity in the effluent, minus
the dissolved 14CO2 in the effluent, the removal of AO was 87 -93% (unit
1), and 79 -86% (unit 2). The mineralization of the test substance was
75% (unit 1) and 70% (unit 2). The sorption to MLSS was 16% (unit 1) and
12% (unit 2). Mass balance was 100% (unit 1) and 98% (unit 2). The
sponsor also measured parent and metabolites by TLC-RAD. Based on parent
and metabolites in the effluent, the removal of parent AO was >99.9%
(unit 1), and 99.8% (unit 2).
The removal of C12/14
amine oxide from wastewater by sewage treatment was determined in a
monitoring study in The Netherlands between May and July 1996 [Debaere G
(1996c)]. Six municipal activated sludge treatment plants in The
Netherlands were included. The concentration of C12/14 amine oxide was
determined in influent and effluent samples. Samples (raw and treated
sewage) were collected from the six municipal activated sludge sewage
treatment plants (STP) over three consecutive days. The samples were
analysed by FI/MS/MS for both C12 and C14 Amine oxide. The removal of
amine oxide during activated sludge sewage treatment was >95 to >99% at
the six plants. The level of Amine oxide in effluent was below detection
in all effluent samples (<0.43 µg/L). The amount of Amine oxide in
influent ranged between 9-130 µg/L.
The BOD removal at the six plants was 96 to >98%.
Based on the results
of the CAS test (removal of parent AO >99.8 % in both units) and the
removal of AO from wastewater by sewage treatment seen in the
Netherlands monitoring study (BOD 96 to > 98 %) it is considered to be
justified to use a removal rate of 98 % when evaluating exposure to the
aquatic compartment from release of AO to the environment via STP.
The biodegradation of
dodecyl amine oxide (C12 AO) was evaluated in a River-Water Die Away
study according to the OECD 314D guidelines [Debaere G (1996)]. The test
system consisted of river water, effluent from 2 CAS units, and a small
amount of activated sludge from a treatment plant handling primarily
domestic sewage. The test period was 14 days, and 14CO2 production and
radiochemistry were measured. The river water die away (RDA) test was
performed in duplicate: RDA test 1 used effluent from CAS unit 1, and
RDA test 2 used effluent from CAS unit 2. RDA test 1 was dosed with 2 µg/L
test substance (from the effluent from CAS unit 1). RDA test 2 was dosed
with 1 µg/L
test substance, and 2.9 µg/L
metabolites of parent (from the effluent from CAS unit 2).
After 14 days, the
total 14CO2 production in the river die away study was 43% for RDA test
1, and 63% for test unit 2. The half-life of mineralization was 4.3 days
in RDA 1, and 2.1 days in RDA 2. After 14 days, loss of parent was 61%
in RDA test 1. The % loss of parent in unit 2 was unreliable (7%),
because of the presence of significant metabolites at the start in RDA
test 2. After 14 days, the amount of parent compound was 0.78 ug/L in
RDA test 1, and 0.92 ug/L in RDA test 2. Intermediates were mineralized
to below detection limits of the TLC-RAD method (<0.33 ug/L).
The radiochemical mass
balances averaged 87 and 99% for RDA tests 1 and 2 respectively. After
14 days in RDA test 1, 43% of the radioactivity was CO2, 39% was parent,
and 9% was associated with the solids (total=91%). After 14 days in RDA
test 2, 63% of the radioactivity was CO2, 24% was parent, and 24% was
associated with the solids (total=111%). Based on the results of the two
tests, the half-life in surface water is 3.2 days (the average of 4.3
A simulation of the
mineralization of C12 alkyl amine oxide in anaerobic digester sludge was
conducted in accordance with OECD 314C guideline [Edwards DE (1996a)]. A
solution of radiolabelled and non-radiolabelled amine oxide was tested
at 1 mg/L. The radiolabel (14C) was on the methylene groups (CH2) of the
alkyl side-chain. The inoculum was acclimated anaerobic digester sludge
harvested from a bench scale anaerobic acclimation reactor. The test
treatments were measured in duplicate. The evolution of both 14C-CO2 and
14C-methane was measured. The mean cumulative percent of theoretical %
14C-gas produced was 75.5.The rate constant for mineralization of amine
oxide in anaerobic digester sludge was 0.055/hour (equivalent to
to Annex IX Section 220.127.116.11 sediment simulation testing is required for
substances with a high potential for adsorption to sediment. However,
column 2 of section 18.104.22.168 states that the study need not be conducted
if the substance is readily biodegradable, or if direct and indirect
exposure of sediment is unlikely. The substance is readily biodegradable
and hence the study is scientifically unjustified.
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