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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Preparation of the stock solution and dilution: the test substance was stirred in M4 medium for about 10 minutes at 20 +/- 2 °C. Stock solution (100 mg/L was diluted with M4 medium.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
- Daphnia magna STRAUS 1820
- Age at start of test: 2-24 hours
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
18 - 22 °C
Dissolved oxygen:
O2 concentration was > 3 mg/L in all replicates
Nominal and measured concentrations:
-Nominal test concentrations: 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 mg/L
-Concentrations were analytically verified at the beginning of the study and after 48 hours
- The analytical recovery rate in the concentration 25 mg/L was 101.2 % at the beginning and only 35 % after 48 h, in the concentration 6.25 mg/L even below the detection limit.
Details on test conditions:
- Water composition (M4 medium): synthetic fresh water
total hardness 2.20 - 3.20 mmol/l
molar ratio Ca:Mg ca. 4:1
pH: 7.5 - 8.5
conductivity: 550 - 650 uS/cm
saturated with O2

- Test vessels: 20 ml flat bottom test tubes
- Test volume: 10 ml
- 5 animals/vessel
- 4 replicates / concentration
- 20 animals/concentration

- Artifical light (day:night 16:8 h)
- Iight intensity 2-7 uE/m2 s at 400 - 700 nm
- Swimming ability was scored visually at 0, 24 and 48 hours.
- Statistical Method: The EC50 was calculated by the moving average method.

Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
8.75 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
11.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
17.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Results expressed as nominal concentrations:
EC0 (48h) = 25 mg/LEC0 (24h) = 25 mg/L
EC50 (48h) = 34.1 mg/L (95% confidence limits 31.0 - 37.5 mg/L)
EC50 (24h) = 58.7 mg/L (95% confidence limits 50.6 - 68.1 mg/l)
EC100 (48h) = 50 mg/L EC100 (24h) = 100 mg/L
Based on the analytically detected concentrations the EC50 (48 h) was 11.9 mg/L (95% confidence limit 10.8 -13.1 mg/L).
50 and 100 mg/L (nominal concentrations) were toxic and pH exceeded 9.4. Neutralization did not influence the test result.
The reference substance was functional.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2005-10-07 to 2006-01-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
The purity of the test substance is not indicated, no analytical monitoring was performed
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents to freshwater and marine organisms. EPA/600/4-85/013.
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ISO 14669 (1999) Water Quality: Determination of acute lethal toxicity to marine copepods (Copepoda;Crustacea).
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
Not applicable
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: WAFs were prepared by the direct addition of the required nominal weights or volumes to seawater followed by gentle stirring for approximately 20 hours followed by a settling period of approximately one hour. After this settling period, the middle phase of the preparation was siphoned, avoiding incorporation of undissolved particles, if present.
Test organisms (species):
other: Corophium volutator
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Acartia tonsa
- Source: Dustaffnage Marine Laboratory in 1995
- Age of parental stock: 17 and 25 days old
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: mixed algal diet



Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
no data
Test temperature:
19.3 - 21.3 °C
pH:
7.94 - 8.77
Dissolved oxygen:
95-98 %
Salinity:
Not specified
Conductivity:
50.9-51.8 mS/cm
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 10, 18, 32, 56, 100 mg/L
No measured concentrations
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 100 mL capacity borosilicate glass crystallising dishes,
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 50 mL of test medium covered with soda glass watch covers.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 20 and 19 for the test concentration 0.32 mg/L
- No. of vessels per concentration: 2
- No. of vessels per control: 1

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Natural seawater is supplied by pump from Scapa Flow, Orkney. All seawater is UV sterilised and filtered to 0.2 µm.
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Measurement of water quality (dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature) are carried out in one replicate at each concentration at Oh, 24h, and 48h. Observation of mortalities are carried out at 24h and 48h.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortalities are detemined in each vessel at 24 and 48h. The number of dead or immobile copepods are expressed as a proportion of the total number exposed.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: Not specified

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- Test concentrations: 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Mortality was found in a concentration of 100 and 1000 mg/L. The LC50 was determined to be 55 mg/L.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
3.5 Dichlorophenol
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
60.67 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: There were no interferences in this test.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? Yes
- LC50: 0.80 mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes

Description of key information

Freshwater: The short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates in freshwater was tested in two OECD guideline studies. The worst case EC50 was determined to be 11.9 mg/L.

 

Saltwater: The short-term toxicity to fish in salt water was tested in an OECD guideline study.The EC50 was determined to be 60.67 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
11.9 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
60.67 mg/L

Additional information

Freshwater

Key

The test substance was tested in an OECD guideline 202 study with Daphnia magna. The nominal concentrations tested were 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 mg/L. The analytical recovery rate in the concentration 25 mg/L was 101.2 % at the beginning and only 35 % after 48 h, in the concentration 6.25 mg/L even below the detection limit. The test was conducted under static conditions. The test substance exhibited a 48 h EC50 of 11.9 mg/L (measured concentration).

Supporting

The test substance was tested in an OECD guideline study with Daphnia magna. The EC50 was determined to be 58 mg/L.

Conclusion: Two OECD guideline studies were conducted. The key study showed a EC50 of 11.9 mg/L, the supporting study showed a EC50 of 58 mg/L. As a worst case the EC50 value of 11.9 mg/L was chosen as key value.

Salt water

The test substance was tested in an OECD guideline study with Acarlia tonsa. The test substance was added to the test system via water accommodated fractions. 5 nominal concentrations were tested: 10, 18, 32, 56, 100 mg/L. The method estimates the effect of chemicals on the mortality/immobility on adult copepods over a period of 48h at a temperature of 20+/- 2°c.The test substance exhibited a 96 h LC50 of 60.67 mg/L. All relevant validity criteria were met.