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Description of key information

No metabolism or toxicokinetic data was generated on any of the constituents involved with this dataset. The information in this chapter has been derived based on the physicochemical properties of the substance, information from QSAR models, i.e. QSAR Toolbox (v.3.4) and EpiSuite (v. 4.1) and information on bioaccumulation potential from the chapter on environmental fate and pathways. The substance has a molecular weight of 442,589 g/Mol and a low vapour pressure of 0.0015 Pa at 20°C. The log Kow of -3.3 suggests that the substance has a low bioaccumulation potential. The QSAR Toolbox (version 3.1) was used to estimate the human intestinal absorption. The absorption is considered to be 100% by all routes.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Bioaccumulation potential:
low bioaccumulation potential
Absorption rate - oral (%):
100
Absorption rate - dermal (%):
100
Absorption rate - inhalation (%):
100

Additional information

Substance:

The substance “Aromatic hydrocarbons, C10-13, reaction products with branched nonene, sulfonated, sodium salts”, further referred to asSodium alkylnaphthalene sulfonateor ANS, is a UVCB of which the most representative structure is given in the properties table below. ANS is anionic (-2) at all physiological pH.Based on its surfactant properties, the structure is not expected to easily pass membrane structures, but cytotoxicity through disruption of cell membrane is expected. This is supported by study results: All available data indicates that the NOAEL is driven by local effects of the substance on skin and gastro-intestinal tract.

 

No metabolism or toxicokinetic data was generated on any of the constituents involved with this dataset. The information in this chapter has been derived based on Profiling, the physicochemical properties of the substance, information from QSAR models, i.e. QSAR Toolbox (v.3.4) and EpiSuite (v. 4.1) and information on bioaccumulation potential from the chapter on environmental fate and pathways.

 

Physical-chemical properties

The pure substance is a solid, with a melting point of 98 °C and a boiling point > 350 °C.

The anionic properties at all pH contributes to it water solubility, as is demonstrated by the measured value of 530 g/L. Its surface active properties result to a measured surface tension of30 mN/m and a CMC of 1.6 g/L.

The calculated vapour pressure is very low. The measured vapour pressure is with 0.0015 Pa at 20°C also low, although higher than expected from calculations. This is probably due to the impurities in this UVCB substance.

 

Profiling:

 

alkylnaphthalene sulfonate, sodium salt (ANS)

Chemical name

Aromatic hydrocarbons, C10-13, reaction products with branched nonene, sulphonated, sodium salts

CAS

1258274-08-6

Physical state

Off white powder, free flowing. (low nonene substitution)

All particles are smaller than 100 µm: (Dx: x vol.% with smaller diameter)

D10 = 7,7 µm; D50 = 39.2 µm; D90 = 92.8 µm; D99 = 153-159 µm

SMILES

CCC(C)C(C)CC(C)C1=CC=C(C2=C1C(C)=C(C)C(=C2)S(O)(=O)=O)S(O)(=O)=O

Molecular structure

Molecular formula

C21H30O6S2

Molecular weight

442,589

Density

0.820 at 20°C. (AN exp)

Solubility:ALogPS 2.0

          WSKOW v1.42

        WATERNT v1.01

-4.245 (25.2 mg/L)

0.2822 mg/L

16585 mg/L

Solubility (meas)

530 g/L at 20°C (AN exp)

CMC = 1.6 g/L (active concentration) at 25 °C.

Surface tension

30 mN/m (1 g/L at pH 7)

pKa:                        

not relevant (always 2-)

logPow(ALOGPS 2.1)

       (KOWWIN v1.68)

3.63 (± 1.84)

4.4138

logPow (meas)

-3.3 (AN exp)

logD (Chemaxon)

n.a.

Mp (EPIWIN)

274.45 °C

bp (EPIWIN)

632.41 °C

Vp (EPIWIN) 25°C

7.3E-016 Pa (Modified Grain Method)

Mp (meas)

98 °C. (AN exp.)

bp (meas)

> 350 °C. (AN exp.)

Vp (meas)

0.0015 Pa at 20°C; 0.0058 mPa at 25 °C. (AN exp)

Surface tension

1 g/L at pH 7: 30 mN/m. (AN exp)

Dermal penetration coefficient Kp (est)

Kp (est): 0.00441 cm/hr (EPI Suite)

Kp (est): 0.000539 cm/h (DEREK)

Human Intestinal absorption (HIA)

83.1%

Modified Lipinski:

log Pow (≤ 5)

H-acceptors (≤10)

H-donors (≤ 5)

mw (< 500 D)

Rotatable bonds (≤10)

PSA (<140Å2)

 Conclusion

 

Yes: 3.63

Yes: 6

Yes: 2

Yes: 442.6

Yes: 7

Yes: 110,834 Å2

Likely to be bioavailable (ADMET: Low absorption; includes LogP of 5.898)

(*) The iso-C9 chain is taken as representative structure

Molecular formula, molecular weight and pKa were all calculated using ChemAxon MarvinSketch (v.16.2.22).

Melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure and logPow were estimated by EPI Suite (v4.1) – on MAPTA chloride.

Solubility and logPow are estimated using ALOGPS 2.1 (VCCLAB, Virtual Computational Chemistry Laboratory,http://www.vcclab.org, 2005)

Absorption properties:

- dermal: EpiSuite v. 4.1 (Dermwin v2.02); (water:0.0005 cm/hr): log Kp = -2.80 + 0.66 log Kow - 0.0056 MW

     DEREK Nexus (Lhasa) v.2.1.1, 2016: Log Kp (cm.h-1) = -2.72 + 0.71 Log P – 0.0061 MW

- intestinal: HIA: QSAR toolbox (version 3.3.5) (Human Intestinal Absorption) (QRMF is attached)

- ChemAxon MarvinSketch (v.16.2.22).

- ADMET: Accelrys/Biovia Discovery Studio ADME & TOPKAT Toxicity Package

 

Toxicokinetic properties:

The properties of ANS indicate good solubility, not too high LogPow, which are favourable for systemic absorption. Also (modified) Lipinski rules suggest and QSARs indicate that ANS is expected to be reasonably absorbed.

 

Oral absorption:

Ingestion is not a likely route of exposure and the irritating effects would limit accidental oral exposure. The QSAR Toolbox (version 3.4) was used to estimate the human intestinal absorption. The absorption following oral exposure is estimated to 83.1%. Due to no actual test data on the substance a worst case approach is taken and the default 100% is used in the risk assessment.

 

Dermal absorption:

No experimental data are available on dermal absorption. ANS is not expected to easily pass the skin in view of its ionised form at physiological conditions..

Due to the irritating nature of the substance, the required risk management measures to handle it should minimize the potential for contact with the skin. However due to the irritating properties which would possibly compromise the barrier properties of the skin, possible exposure to the test substance would have to be assumed to result in 100% absorption. The low octanol water partition coefficient of Log Kow -3.3 would reduce its potential for being absorbed through the skin, but the estimation of dermal absorption performed using EpiSuite (v.4.1) indicates some uptake.

Lacking adequate quantitative evaluation, 100% dermal absorption is considered as worst case assumption.

Respiratory absorption:

As a worst case, absorption via the inhalational route is also considered to be complete, although exposure to the substance via inhalation is unlikely based on the physical appearance of the substance. In view of thevery low vapour pressure is exposure via inhalation in principle only possible via aerosol of dust. In both cases most is expected to be deposited in the nose, throat and upper airways and will be subsequently swallowed following mucociliary transportation to pharynx. This results to no principal difference in absorption compared oral route. Asworst case approach also 100% absorption is considered via inhalation route.

 

The substance is not considered to have a potential for bioaccumulation, based on its water solubility properties and the low Kow value, and lack of increased toxicity observed in repeated dose studies of different duration.